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各种疑问各种否定简答与省略从句虚拟倒装与3非谓语法与10种词翻译技巧

【讲座】语法与10种词
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构词口诀:先合成,再转化,后派生10万个为什么页底陆续... 日新月异 <θηδэ*∫)
1.合成:book书+shelf架=bookshelf书架 2.转化:book预定 3.派生:book书+ing行为=booking约定
教学目的:了解各国语言的词法都是由词根符号而发展形成的。这就是“英文=中文”的理论基础。

第1课 10大词法 定义:句子是由词法够成,词是语言的最小单位。

1.名词-----事物的名称。>>>作主语...如:book/a car key drinking water(复合名词)...

2.数词-----数数用。  >>>作主语... 如:one first...
3.代词-----代替名词用。>>>作主语... 如:I...
4.形容词---修饰名词用。>>>作表语 定语... 如:good ...
5.副词-----修饰动词用。>>>作状语... 如:often ...
6.动词-----人的动作。>>>作谓语...如:play ...

7.连词-----连接词&句子。>>连接用...  如:and ...
8.介词-----起介绍作用。>>>作状语...如:in ...
9.冠词-----能确定范围的词。>作定语... 如:a an the (共3个)
10.感叹词--发出感叹。>>独立使用... 如:Bother.去你的!Boy!哇!(好家伙!)
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第2课 10大语法 定义:语法决定词法的排列顺序.

1.主语----句子的主题或动作的发出者.如:My head aches.头痛.(动态句)
2.谓语----动作.如:They sang and danced all night.他们一整夜又唱又跳。
3.宾语----动作的承受者。 如:The firm gave Tom a watch.
那家商行赠与TOM一块.*TOM=间接宾语

4.表语----解释主语。 如:Cowards are cruel. 懦夫不仁
5.定语----解释主语&宾语。如:The door opened.    这扇门开了。
6.状语----解释谓语动词。 如:They are not cowards.  他们是懦夫。
7.补语----宾语的动作。 如:He made her laugh.   他让她

8.同位语--与主语。如:All you boys need to work harder.
你们全部男孩都需要再努力了。
*The professor and writer is speaking at the meeting.那位教授兼作家正在会上发言。

9.插入语---使句子表达得更充分些.如 To tell you the truth,I don't like chicken,either.说实话,我也不喜欢吃鸡肉。

10.独立语---独立成句.如:Hi.你好Yes?什么事情
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第3课 语法&词法

定义:语法决定词法,词法不能决定语法.通过词法的千百万化能激活信息载体--语法。
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第4课 主语 定义:只要充当主语就具有名词性质.或主题或动作的发出者.(主从关系)

1.名词A doll is a toy.洋娃娃是一种玩具。(判断句)
    English is a world language.英语是一种世界性语言。(判断句)

2.并列主语 如 Tom and Mary are flying to Hong Kong. TomMary正飞往香港。

3.代词 如 It's no use asking me.问我没有用。
     Either will be fine.两个都好. (描写句)

4.数词  如 One must work.必须工作。One=人
    2 and 5 are factors of 10.2和5是10的因子
    One of your aircraft is missing.你们的一架飞机失踪。
    2005 was when my son was born.2005是我儿子出生年。

5.动宾结构 Let's try again.让我们再试一次。

6.动名词 如 Walking is good exercise.走路是很好的锻炼。

    Smoking is bad for the health.吸烟有害健康。
    Being a good awimmer was my dream.成为一名游泳键将曾是我的梦想。

7.疑问代词Who's the boss in this office?是这间办公室的主管?(判断句)
8.副词 如 There is a dog here.存在句那儿有一只狗。*There=虚拟主语
9.不定式To see is to believe.眼见为实。(判断句)
To forgive is divine[di`vain].原谅别人是神圣的. (描写句)

10.形容词 Red is my favourite colour.红色是我喜爱的颜色。(判断句)   
    The old and the young don't always understand each other.
    老年人与青年人不是总能够相互理解。

11.句子/扩张主语 如 Where love is there is faith.哪里有爱哪里就有诺言。(+)
    What you said might be true.你说的也许是真的。(+)
    When he did it is a mystery. 他何时干了这件事是个(+)
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第5课 谓语 定义:只要充当谓语就具有动词性质。(确认关系)

1.动词  I insist on seeing it. 我一定要见到它。
2.形容词 如 She longs for fame.渴望成名。
   = She longs after fame.

3.形容词 如 The judge fined him heavily. 法官重了他。
4.be动词 如 Exercise is good for health.运动有益健康的。(描写句)

5.并列谓语 如 We sang and danced all night.我们一整夜又

6.句子/扩张谓语 如 We were talking and laughing.我们又

 We finished lunch and went shopping. (动态句)
 We fished all day,but didn't catch a thing.我们钓了1天鱼,但一条也没钓到。

 We fished all day,but we didn't catch a thing.(译文同上)
 We fished all day;we didn't catch a thing.(译文同上)
 We fished all day;however,we didn't catch a thing.(译文同上)
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第6课 宾语 定义:只要充当宾语就具有名词性质。是动作的承受者。(主从关系)

1.代词/名词/动词 如 Say it to me.(Say me it.×) 对我说一说这事。

 They gave it to him.(...him it×)他们将它赠与他。*it=直接宾语
 Wish you success.成功。     

 I gave the car a wash.我把汽车冲洗了一遍. *the car=间接宾语

2.并列宾语 如 I met Tom and Mary.我遇见了TomMary
    =I met both Tom and Mary.我遇见了TomMary。 *并列宾语

*I met neither Tom norMary.我没遇见Tom也没遇见Mary.
*neither+nor=not+or再如:↓
    =I didn't meet either Tom orMary.(译文同上)

3.分词短语 如 I recall seeing him.我记锝见过他
   如 I enjoy sitting in the sun.我喜欢坐着晒太阳。

4.不定式 如 Rabbits love to eat carrots.兔子爱吃胡萝卜
5.介词短语 如 Can you do with a sandwich for lunch? 你能吃三明治来将就午餐吗?

6.句子/扩张宾语如 Imagine you are a fish.幻想你自己是一条鱼。( )

  Do you know where she is?       你知道他在哪儿吗?( + )
  Tom doesn't know when he will finish work,does he?( + )

TOM不知道他什么时侯会完成工作,他知道吗?
I wonder When he did it.我想知道他何时干了这件事

  He gave some advice on how to learn a foreign language.*介词on后=宾语
 
如何学一门外语他提了一些建议。
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第7课 表语 定义:只要充当表语就具有名词&形容词的说明性质。(解释关系)

1.形容词 如 She is very humble.她非常谦虚(描写句)
  There is not much left.没有太多剩下的了.=所剩无几。(存在句)

2.并列表语 如 It was cold and wet.天气又冷又潮湿(描写句)
   It wasn't 
cold or wet.天气不冷也不潮湿。*否定or=and
   =It was neither cold norwet.天气即不冷也不潮湿. *not+or=neither+nor

2.名词 如 Some friends can be a bad influence.有些朋友能带来不良的影响

 We're living a happy life.我们正过着幸福的生活
 They are running a race.他们正在跑一场比赛

3.动词 如 Now it's your go.如现在轮到你走了
4.不定式 如 My housework is to clean the floor.我的家务是去清洗地板
5.句子/扩张表语 如 He is not what he used to be.他不再是过去的他了.(+)

  This is what comes of being overconfident. 这就是过于自信的结果.

  The question is whether he has signed the contract.
问题是他是否在合同上签了字

The question is When he did it.问题是他何时干了这件事。(判断句)
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第8课 定语 定义:只要充当定语就具有形容词的修饰性质。(递进关系)

1.冠词 如 They own a car.他们拥有一部车。
2.过去分词 如 I don't like canned food.我不喜欢罐装食品.(动态句)
3.现在分词 如 I haven't finished reading the newspaper yet.
我还没有看完报报纸呢。

4.分词短语 如 It's no use asking her.=There's no use asking her.
*asking her修饰use
问他毫无用处。(+) *It's=There's
Is it any use trying to phone him?=Is there any use trying to phone him?
*trying to phone him修饰use.给他大个电话有用吗?(+) *It's=There's

5.副词This book here is very helpful.这里的这本书是很有帮助的。(描写句)
6.介词短语 如 That's the end of the story.那就是故事的结尾了。( )

The girl with long hair is my classmate.留长发的女孩是我的同学。

7.并列定语 如 The old building opposite our school is being pulled done.
*被动/现/进

我们学校对面一座旧楼正在被推倒.*The old是building的并列定语

8.间隔定语
The horses in the meadow were being pestered by flies.*[`medou]牧草地

  牧场里的 这些马匹不断受蝇滋骚着.*Thein the meadow =是horses的并列定语

9.句子/扩张定语 如 Have you got the letters I sent you?
你已经收到我寄给你的那封信了吗?()

    The man who stole the money ran away. 偷钱的那个人跑掉了。(+)
    He is the man whose car was stolen.  他就是汽车被盗的那个人。(判断句)
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第9课 状语 定义:只要充当状语就具有词的性质。词修饰:动词/词/形容词/句子。
(因果关系)

1.名词/代词The fire lasted an hour.大火持续了一个小时.(动态句)
 He explained it to me.(...explained me...×)他对我解释了那件事。

2.词 如 The night is yet young.夜色不深。(描写句)

3.介词短语 如 I've been waiting for half an hour.我已经持续等了长达半个小时了
 All of us passed apart from Tom. 除了TOM,我们都通过了。

4.介词短语 如 I have no money with me.我没有带钱(占有句)
5.不定式 如 It is very impolite
to do so.是不礼貌的,这样做(描写句)

6.动名词 如 It is worth seeing. 它是值得一看

 What harm is there in trying?试一试又何妨?(存在句)
 Forgive us for being late.原谅我们来迟了。(动态句)

7.并列状语 如 There's a meeting at the school at 6.
六点钟
在学校有一个会。(存在句)

8.句子/扩张状语 如 We'll go wherever we like.
*wherever引导的动态句作地点状语
我们喜欢去哪就去哪.
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第10课 补语 定义:只要充当补语就具有说明宾语(or被动主语)的补充性质。(递进关系)

1.名词 如 They made him captain of a ship.他们推举他为船长.(动态句)

2.形容词 如 They called him foolish. 他们认为他很傻的(动态句)

 They made Tom redundant. 他们使TOM成了超编人员(动态句)
 I love swimming. It keeps me fit. 我喜欢游泳,它能使我保持健康a.

3.动词 如 He made her laugh. 他让她(动态句)

4.现分短语 如 Do you know the man talking to the boss?
你认识正在同老扳说话的人吗?

*I fould him lying on the floor.=He was lying on the floor.
我发现他躺在地板上.(动态句)

*I saw the car heading for me ,so I stepped aside. 
我看到汽车朝我驶来,所以我让到一旁。

5.过分短语 如 We preferred the house painted white.
我们倒喜欢那座漆成白色的房子。

6.句子/扩张补语 如 Give the public what it wants want.应满足公众的要求。(动态句)
    =Give the public what they want want. * what引导的(动态句) = 补语
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第11课 同位语 定义:只要充当同位语就具有词的同位性质。 (并列关系)

1.代词  如 We all had a good time on the beach.
在海滩上我们都玩得很开心.>占有句/过去时

   You yourself said so.你自己说的.>动态句/过去时
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第12课 插入语定义:只要充当插入语就具有再次强调的插入性质。(递进关系)

1.短语 如 To her delight,she passed the exeaination.
使她高兴的是
,她通过了这次考试。

 Being your father,I have a duty to give you advice.
作为你的父亲,我有责任劝告你。

 =As your father,I have a duty to give you advice.
*这里as=Being,表示‘是’的意义。

*He wants me to take the job.I'm afraid,hawever,that I am not fit for it.          他希望我接受这工作,但我恐怕自己不能胜任。

*E-mail,as well as phone calls,is playing an important part in daily communication.
像电话一样,电子邮件在日常交流中也起着非常重要的作用。

It's not a very nice flat.On the other hand,it's cheap.
这套房子虽然不大好,可是它价钱便宜。
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第13课 独立语定义:只要充当独立语就具有独立短句/小句的性质。(递进关系)

1.独立语 The sooher,the better.     越快越好。

    Just so so.         还可以。
    No pain,no gain!       不付出就没有收获!
    Too clod to write.Humbug!  太冷了,没法写字?胡扯!
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句子种类总结:

从使用目的来看,可分为四类:
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陈述句

肯定陈述句【回答特殊疑问句】

I’m a student.回

否定陈述句【回答特殊疑问句】

She is not a worker.

疑问句

一般疑问句

Are you a student?

特殊疑问句

What’s your mother?

选择疑问句

Is it old or new?

反意疑问句

He is a student, isn’t he?

祈使句

肯定祈使句

Open the door.

否定祈使句

Don’t be late.

感叹句

what--引导

What good news it is!

how--引导

How kind you are!


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从句子结构上分,可分为:简单句/并列句/复合句3类。例如;

I have a book.(简单句)我有一本书。

He is a boy, but he knows a lot.(并列句)他是个孩子,但是他懂得很多。

When we were talking, he came up.(复合句)我们正在谈话的时候,他来了。
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1.陈述句

用来叙述或否定一件事情或一种看法的句子叫陈述句,句末用句号,通常用降调。例如:

She has caught a cold.她感冒了。

He is not here. 他不在这儿。

You can’t finish the work yourself.你不能自己完成这项工作。
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2.疑问句 ⑴一般疑问句

一般疑问句用来询问一件事或一个情况是否属实,通常用yes或no来回答。
这种疑问句句末用问号、用升调。基本结构为:助动词/情态动词+主语+谓语例如:

-Is he reading a book? 他正在看书吗?

-Yes, he is.是的,他在看书。

-No, he isn’t.不,他不在看书。

-Do you get up early? 你早起吗?

-Yes, I do.是的,我早起?

-No, I don’t.不,我不早起。

-Can he play the piano? 他会弹钢琴吗?

-Yes, he can.是的,他会。

-No, he can’t.不,他不会。
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(2)特殊疑问句

用疑问词引导的疑问句叫做特殊问句。这种问句不能用Yes或No来回答,用降调。其基本结构是:

①疑问词+一般疑问句……②疑问代词(主语)+ 谓语……③疑问词(定语)+名词+一般疑问句……

例句:-What did you do yesterday? 你昨天做什么?

-I went to the park.我去公园。

Who told you the news? 谁告诉你这消息的?

When will he arrive? 他什么时候到?

Whose book is this? 这是谁的书?
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选择疑问句

提出两种或两种以上的情况,要求对方选择一种情况回答,这种问句叫选择疑问句。
中间用or连接,不用yes或no回答,语调一般是前升后降。例如:

-Is he a teacher or a doctor?他是老师还是医生?-He is a doctor.他是医生。
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(4)反意疑问句

在陈述句之后附上一个简单句,对陈述句所叙述的事实提出相反的疑问,
这种疑问句叫做反意疑问句。如果反意疑问句的前一部分为肯定式,后
一部分就用否定形式;如果前一部分为否定形式,则后一部分用肯定形
式。反意疑问句的否定句用缩略形式。须用yes或no回答。其基本结构
是:陈述句+疑问尾句
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例如:-She is a student, isn’t she?她是个学生,对吗?-Yes, she is.是的,她是。

-He likes sports, does he?他喜欢体育运动,对吗?-No, he doesn’t.不,他不喜欢。
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3.祈使句

祈使句是用来表示命令、请求或建议的句子,主语(you)通常被省略,
句末可用句号或感叹号。例如:

Sit down, please! 请坐下。Be careful! 小心!Don’t open the window.不要开窗。
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感叹句:
感叹句是表示喜、怒、哀、乐等强烈感情的句子。句末用感叹号。其句型是:
What+名词+主语+谓语、How +adj./adv. +主语+谓语、How+主语+谓语

例句:
What a lovely girl she is!她是个多么可爱的孩子啊!

How lovely the girl is! 这女孩多么可爱啊!How they work! 他们工作多努力啊!
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句子成分总结:

组成句子的各个部分叫句子成分,句子成分是由一个单词或词组在句中的功用来划分的。

成分

位置

作用

词类

例句

主语

句首

动作发出者

名词、代词、名词性词语、从句

The boy gets up early.

谓语

主语后

主语的动作、状态

动词

We work hard.

宾语

及物动词后,介词后

动作的承受者

名词、代词、名词性词语、从句

I saw a film last night.

表语

系动词后

说明主语的性质、状态

名词、代、数、形、副、分词、介词短语等

The boy is strong.

补语

宾语后、谓语后

补充说明主语、宾语

与表语同

I find it interesting.

定语

名词前、后

修饰、限制名词

形容词、名词、代词、数词、不定式、分词、动名词等

It is a good book.

状语

句首、中、末

修饰形容词、副词、动词等

副词、介词短语、分词、不定式、从句等

He ran fast.

同位语

被修饰词后

重复指代、说明名词

名词、名词性词语、从句等

We each have a book.

注意:①谓语的形式变化由主语的人称和数来限制、决定,这就是主谓一致关系。
它一般依据三项原则:语法一致、意义一致、就近一致。例如:

She loves music. 她喜爱音乐。(语法一致)

The children are taken good care of.孩子们得到很好的照料。(语法一致)

Our family is a big one.我们家是个大家庭。(意义一致)

The family are fond of music.这家人都喜欢音乐。(意义一致)

Neither you nor I am wrong. 你和我都没错。(就近一致)
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②宾语分为直接宾语和间接宾语,前者表示谓语或动词所向或所为的人或物;
后者指谓语或动词的直接接受者。可接双宾的动词有:give、answer、teach、show、refuse、save、lend、send、pass、leave、bring、allow、offer等。例如:

He gave me a pen yesterday.他昨天给我一枝钢笔。

Please answer me the question.请回答我的问题。Pass me the book, please! 请把书递给我。
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**简单句的基本句型

只含一个主谓结构的句子叫简单句。
句子由主语、谓语动词、表语、宾语、宾语补足语等组成。一般有五种基本句型。

主语+不及物动词:SV(主、谓)They came. 他们来了。The sun rises in the east. 太阳从东方升起。

主语+连系动词+表语:SVP(主、系、表)She is happy. 她幸福。Today is Sunday. 今天是星期天。

主语+及物动词+宾语:SVO(主/谓/宾)We need some help.我们需要帮助。
He wants to see a film. 他想看电影。

主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语:SVOO(主、谓、宾、宾)

Father sent me a new bike.父亲送我一辆新自行车。

主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语:SVOC(主、谓、宾、补)

I saw him go out. 我看见他出去了。We made him our moniter. 我们选他当班长。

此外,简单句还有一种句型:“There be”存在句。其基本句型是:

There +be+主语+状语/定语

There are some books on the desk.桌上有一些书。

There isn’t any milk in the bottle.瓶子里没有牛奶。
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***并列复合句

由两个或两个以上的简单句,用并列连词连在一起的句子叫并列复合句,
其中每一个简单句叫并列分句。常见的并列连词有:but、and、or、so等。

句型:简单句+并列连词+简单句

He is old, but he is still strong.他老了,但他仍然强壮。

He lost his job, so he was unhappy these days. 他丢了工作,因而这些天心情不太好。

I went home and she stayed at school. 我回家了,她留在学校。
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***主从复合句

主从复合句由一个主句和一个或更多的从句构成。可以分为:状语从句、名词性从句
(主语、表语、宾语、同位语从句)。

**状语从句
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状语从句是表示时间、地点、方式等内容的主谓结构。状语从句在句中作状语。
状语从句的分类及连词如下表:

状从分类

连词

时间

when、while、as、before、after、since、till、until、once、as soon as、whenever

地点

where、wherever

原因

because、since、as、now that

目的

so、that、so that、in order that、in case

条件

if、unless

方式

as、as if(as though)

结果

so、so that、such…that

让步

though、even if、however

比较

as、than

例句:
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We stooped talking as soon as he came in.他一进来,我们就停止了说话。(时间状从)

When he stood up, he dropped the glass.他站起来时,将杯子掉在了地上。(时间状从)

Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者,事竟成。(地点状从)

He did it because he wanted to do it.他做那件事,是因为他想做。(原因状从)

I read it louder in order that everybody could hear.
为了让大家听得见,我大声朗读。(目的状从)

You will make progress if you work hard.你如果努力,就会取得进步。(条件状从)

All plants need air as they need water.
所有植物都需要空气,正如它们需要水一样。(方式状从)

They missed the bus, so they were late for class.
他们误了车,所以上课迟到了。(结果状从)

He went on with his work though he was very tired.
尽管很累,他还是继续工作。(让步状从)

He runs faster than I.他跑得比我快。(比较状从)
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定语从句

作定语用的从句叫定语从句。关系代词或关系副词放在先行词和从句之间起联系作用,
并充当句中的一个成分。

**由关系代词引导的定语从句

关系代词

例句

that

指物

This is the book(that) I bought yesterday.(作宾语)

指人

Who is the man that stands there? (作主语)

which

指物

This is the house(which) I want.(作宾语)

The house which belongs to me is over there.(作主语)

who whom

指人

That’s the lady who teaches me. (作主语)

That’s the girl(whom) I teach. (作宾语)

whose

指人

Do you know the girl whose name is Mary.(作定语)

指物

The house whose door is newly painted is mine. (作定语)


** 由关系副词引导的定语从句

关系副词

例句

when指时间

I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.

where指地点

The hotel where we are staying is expensive.

why指原因

I don’t know the reason why he left.

(3)限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

①限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,如果去掉,主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。
这种从句和主句的关系十分密切,写时不可用逗号分开。例如:

They have a daughter who is at school.他们有一个还在上学的女儿。

That’s the day where he was born. 那就是他出生的那天。

②非限定性定语从句和主句的关系不十分密切,只是对先行词作些附加的说明,如果去掉,主句的意
思仍然很清楚。这种从句和主句之间往往用逗号分开,一般不用that。例如:

They have a daughter, who is at school. 他们有个女儿,她还在上学。

I like the book, which I bought yesterday. 我喜欢这本书,我昨天买到它。

注意:that可以用来表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词,代替关系副词when、where、why,
在口语中that可以省略。

The house (where/that) he lives is near here. 他住的房子在附近。

The reason(why/that) he was absent was that he was ill. 他缺席的原因是他生病了。

**that和which在从句中作主语时,不能省略;作宾语时,在口语和非正式文体中经常省略。
Whom也常省略。whom、which在从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放在先行词和从句之间。
为了使关系代词紧跟着它所修饰的词,也可以把介词放在从句中有关动词的后面。如:

This is the place in which we worked last year.

This is the place which we worked in last year.这是我们去年工作过的地方。

下列情况只能用关系代词that:指事物的先行词前面有形容词最高级、序数词或all、no、
only any、every、little、much、the very等修饰时,常用that引导定语从句。如:

This is the best film that I’ve ever seen. 这是我所看过的最好的影片。

The only thing that I want to do is to swim. 我唯一想做的事,就是游泳。

先行词是不定代词如:all、little、much、may、everything、anything等,
常用that引导定语从句。如:

She saw much that was bad. 她看到许多不好之处。

疑问词who、which等提问时,关系代词用that。如:

Who is the girl that I met just now? 我刚才碰到的女孩是谁?

先行词指人和物两个词时,需用关系代词that。如:

Look at the girl and the dog that are crossing the street.
瞧,正在过马路的那个女孩和那只狗。
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**宾语从句

用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句,它可作及物动词的宾语,也可作介词的宾语和某些形容词的宾语。
引导宾语从句的连词有that(在口语中常省略)、从属连词if、whether和疑问代词what、which、
who、whom及疑问副词when、where、how、why等。例如:

He told me that be was wrong. 他告诉我说他错了。

I’m surprised that he left. 我很吃惊他离开了。

I don’t know whether he likes the film. 我不知道他是否喜欢这部影片。

Are you sure when he arrived? 你能肯定他是何时离开的吗?

注意:如果主句的谓语是过去时,宾语从句的时态应转成相应的过去时。如:

He said that he would come again.他说他会再来的。

He wanted to know who had stolen the money.他想知道谁偷了这笔钱。

She asked me if I was going to the cinema.她问我是否去看电影。

在动词think、believe等后面的宾语从句中的否定词经常前移。例如:

I don’t think he is right. 我认为他不对。

I don’t believe he has finished the work.我相信他没完成工作。
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