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各种疑问各种否定简答与省略从句虚拟倒装与3非谓语法与10种词翻译技巧

【讲座 翻译技巧】

<英文>先立树干,再添枝叶<中文>铺垫,再引主题.
教学目的:了解各国语言的词法都是一词多义的,不同的只是符号的表现形式
教学方式:抓住要点,推出方法.英语10万个为什么页底陆续加载中...
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第1课 翻译技巧 词性→识别法1 *词类必须会变通!

><>Come,there's no time to lose.做吧,时间紧迫不可耽误。[lu:z]浪费
>That's not playing the game.那么做不公平。
>A lot of people in shipbuilding will get the axe.造船业的很多人将解雇。
>Am I getting in the way?我在这儿不碍事吧?
>A little bird told Mary.一位灵通人士告诉了玛丽。
>Each coin has two sides.事情总是一分为二的。<参考:每枚硬币有2个边.>

成语:one in the eye挫折

++>If Mary gets the job,that's one in the eye for Tom;he was desperate to get it.
如果玛丽得到这份工作,那对汤姆是当头一棒,他是拼命想得到这份工作的。
单词desperate[`despэrit]a.极度渴望的(+for;to+v.)


>A few pages of this book are wanting.这本书缺了几页。单词:wanting缺少的.

Electricity lights our houres.电灯照亮我们的房子。
Men must breathe oxygen.必须呼吸氧气。

The noise is driving me crazy[`kreizi].那噪音快把我逼了。
*drive-drove-driven逼

What good is it asking her?问她有什么好处?*good好处n.
We are the same build.我们的体形相同。
=We are of the same build.

>He's a good egg.他是个好人。单词egg[eg]n.<口>人;家伙
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谚语:Neither fish nor flesh.非驴非马。单词flesh[fle]n.兽肉
英语思维:就是‘非鱼肉非兽肉'。


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*build a fire(生火),drawer/drawers(抽屉/衬裤), minute/minutes(分钟/会议记录),sharp pains(剧痛),
dirty looks(难看的脸色), pain/pains(痛苦/努力), work/works(工作/工厂), king/queen(国王/王后),
lad/lass(小伙子/少女)male/female(男子/女子), bridegroom/bride(新郎/新娘), monk/nun(和尚/尼姑),
actor/actress (男演员/女演员), host/hostess (主人/ 女主人), waiter/waitress (服务员/女服务员),
male/temale (男子/女子),god/goddess(神/女神),hero/heroine(英雄/女英雄),tiger/tigress(雄虎/雌虎),
lion/lioness(雄狮/雌狮),wolf/she-wolf(公狼/母狼),dog/bitch(公狗/母狗),stallion/mare(公马/母马),
bull/cow(公牛/母牛),ram/ewe(公羊/母羊),he-goat/she-goat(公羊/母羊),pig/sow(公猪/母猪),
cock(或rooster)/hen(公鸡/母鸡),gander/goose公鹅/母鹅.
表明性别或性的一个常用的办法是把阳性名词词尾变为-ess.*词典后几项用法建议关注一下。

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第2课习惯用语/固定搭配→识别法2

Yours is to hand.来信受到。
He must have a screw[skru:]螺钉loose[lu:s]松松地. 他准是有毛病。
I'm feeling a bit off colour.我感到有点不舒服.*off colour<口>有病
I can't help thinking.我不得不想。*can't/couldn't+ help+Ving=忍不住
I couldn't help but think so.我不得不那样想。*can't/couldn't+but+V =不得不

Take care to get rid of moisture.当心不要受。*to get rid of=摆脱

That's a nice thing to say!这种话还能说得出口!*nice=bad坏的[反语]
Were you in for more aggro?你们还要继续闹事吗?*in for=免不了遭受

A day away from a dear one is like three years.
1日不见,如隔3秋.*dear看重的,珍贵的

Down under they speak their own kind of English.
在澳大利亚,人们说的是当地的英语.down under=in Australia=在澳大利亚
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第3课逆向思维→识别法3

We're going for a ride.Why don't you come along with us?*along with=伴随
我们就要去兜风,你干吗不跟我们一块
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第4课
形容词当动词→识别法4

Sugar is soluble in water.容解于水。
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第5课副词当名词→识别法5

Sodium is very active chemically[`kemikli].化学特性很活泼. *sodium=钠
Suddenly,the whole building began to shake.突然,整个大楼摇晃起来。
(The whole building Suddenly began to shake.
*Suddenly,开头→引起悬念。注意+
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6宾语当主语→识别法6

The channel must have a flat bottom.沟道的底要平。
A fine mess you've made of this!你把事情搞得一团糟。*宾语→前移=倒装形式
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7表语当主语→识别法7

Matter is anything that occupies space.凡占有空间的都是物质。*occupy占据
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8省略/添加→识别法8

The result is quite good.结果相当好.(中文无动词)
I'll write you.我将给你写信。(中文添加:信)
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9各种否定→识别法9

Talking doesn't do your work.谈天代替不了劳动. (*谈天不劳动.×)
There is not one of us but wishes to help you.我们中没有一个人不想帮助你.
We learn not at school,but in life.学习不在校,而在生活中.

Where the sun entered,the doctor does not.阳光照耀处,医生不光顾.
Not every color is reflected back.并不是每种色光都会被反射回来的。

No color is reflected back.没有色光被反射回来。*reflect[ri`flekt]
Both of the substances do not dissolve in water.这两种物质并不都溶于水。

Neither of the substances dissolves in water.这两种物质都不溶于水。
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10词义引申→识别法10

Watch your p's and q's.注意你的言行。*字母+'s=复数名词
Dust has a very important part to play in the work of nature.
灰尘活动对自然界变化有重要影响.

We now have the problem solved. 我们现在已经解决了这个问题。
(我们现在使这个问题解决一下
.×)

She had her house destroyed in an earthquake.地震时,她的房子意外震塌了.
(她让房子震塌
...×)

The ayes have it.投赞成票者占多数. *aye[ai]肯定的回答n.
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11恢复主体→识别法11

1.It need not be said that all factors must be taken into consideration.
不用说,所有因素都必须考虑在内。
2.It appears that he is innocent.看起来,他是无辜的.[以下↓必记]

It is said that据说It is reported that据报道
It is believed that据信It is known that据了解

It is claimed[kleim] that据 It is hoped that我们希望 It is thought that有人认为

It is suggested that有人建议 It is well-known that众所周知 It is assumed that假定

It is clear that很清楚 It is certain that毫无疑问 It is true that的确
It is apparent that很明显 It happend that恰巧 It can be seen that可以看出
It must be admitted that必须承认 It is no wonder that难怪 It seems that似乎

It must be kept in mind that必须记住 It should be pointed out that必须指出
It will be noted that你们会注意到 It is common practice that习惯上
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12
先立树干,再分枝叶→识别法12

英文A few stars are known which are hardly bigger than the earth,
②but the majority are so largethat hundred of thousands of earths could
be packed inside each and leave room to spare (还绰绰有余);
③here and there we come upon(=on) a giant(巨大的) star large enough to
contain millions of millions of earths.
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译文:

知道比地球大不多少的星球虽然有几个.
②而大多数星球是如此之大,以致于1个星球竟能容纳下成千上万个地球,还绰绰有余;
③我们到处碰见(come upon)的却是巨星,大得足以容纳下千千万万个地球。

讲解 1.which are ...than the earth=which引导的后置定语从句,修饰①主句A few stars.
2.so...that...如此...以致于...=结果状语从句,修饰②主句。
3.star large enough中的large enough修饰star,而副词enough修饰large.
4.不定式 to contain ... of earths 修饰副词enough.
5.3+4=③主句中come upon 的宾语。

结论 ①主句+②主句+③主句=3个并列句=①+but+②+";"+③=并列句中包含有主从复合句。
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13先作铺垫,再引主题→识别法13

中文: 爱是指我们对某些人/物或想法所持有的一种感情。
爱,我们摸不着,但可以感受到。我们爱的人或物尽管不同,
但就爱是什么而言,却有相同的看法。
英文如下↓

Love is the name of a feeling we have for certain people,things,ideas.
We cannot touch love,but we feel it.Each person has this feeling for
different people and things ,but everyone shares the general idea of what love is.
结论如下↓
Love is the name of a feeling we have for certain people,things, ideas.
We cannot touch love,but we feel it. Each person has this feeling for
different people and things, but everyone shares the general idea of what
love is.*share共有 *general普遍的
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单句->他冲洗了汽车He washed the car.他擦拭了它He polished it.

并列1.他冲洗汽车并擦拭了它。 →He washed the car and polished it. *并=and=He

并列2.他先冲洗汽车,然后擦拭了它.
→He washed the car and then polished it.*然后=and then

并列3.他不仅冲洗汽车,而且擦拭了它.
He not only washed the car,but polished it.

并列4.他不仅冲洗汽车,而且也擦拭了它.
→He not only washed the car,but polished it,too.

并列5.他不仅冲洗汽车,而且又擦拭了它.
→He not only washed the car,but polished it as well.

单句->杰克买了2张音乐剧的票在上星期五。
→Jack bought two tickets for the musical last Friday.*it引导强调句↓

强调人:是杰克买了2张音乐剧票在上星期五。
It was Jack who bought two tickets for the musical last Friday.

强调物:杰克上星期五买的那2张票是音乐剧的票.
It was for the musical that Jack bought two tickets last Friday.
强调时:是在上星期五杰克买了2张音乐剧的票.
It was last Friday that Jack bought two tickets for the musical.
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今天早上我在街上碰见了约翰。
I saw John in the street this morning. *it引导强调句↓
It was I who/that saw John in the street this morning.→强调主语
It was John that/whom I saw in the street this moring.→强调宾语
It was in the street that I saw John this morning. →强调地点状语
It was this morning that I saw John in the street. →强调时间状语
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昨天晚上约翰穿上了最好的衣服参加舞会。

John wore his best suit to the dance last night.*it引导强调句↓
It was John who/that wore his best suit to the dance last night.→强凋主语
It was his best suit that John wore to the dance last night. →强调宾语
It was to the dance that John wore his best suit last night. →强凋地点状语
It was last night that John wore his best suit to the dance. →强调时间状语
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先作铺垫,再引主题〗用分词或不定式连接句子:
单句->他走出屋.→He walked out of the room.

他随手砰地关上了门.
→He slammed the door behind him.

并列->他走出屋并随手砰地关上了门。
He walked out of the room and slammed the door behind him.

现分短语->他走出屋随手砰地关上门
He walked out of the room.slamming the door behind him.

过分短语->他走出屋随手砰地关上了门
He walked out of the room.slammed the door behind him.
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单句:你想订购一辆车.
You want to order a vehicle[`vi:ikl/车辆].
你必须交付押金.You have to pay a deposit.

复合句->如果你想订购一辆车,你就必须交付押金。
*If引导的条件状语从句<
动态句+动态句=句中句>
If you want to order a vehicle,You have to pay a deposit.

不定式短语->要订一辆车,你须付押金.
To order a vehicle
,you have to pay a deposit.*to=if you...

现分短语->订购汽车时,你须交押金.
When ordering a vehicle,you have to pay a deposit.
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先作铺垫,再引主题〗用分词连接句子放在主句前后均可:

现分短语->肯定号码无误后,我又打了电话.
Making sure
I had the right number,I phoned again.<+>
=I phoned again, making sure I had the right number.

了电话薄,确信电话号码无误之后,我又打了电话.
After looking up their number in the phone book and making sure I had got it right,
I phoned again.*had+got=过去完成时
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先作铺垫,再引主题〗用分词短语代替并列小句:
并列->她彻夜不眠,并回想着一天的.
She lay awake all night and recalled the events of the day.

现分短语=She lay awake all night recalling the events of the day.

*lie[lai]躺-lay[lei]-lain[lein]-lying*lay赌注.
-laid-laid-laying*lay外行的*event[i`vent]
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先作铺垫,再引主题〗用分词短语代替时间状语从句:
复合句->从我今天早上给你打电话以后,我就改变了计划.
*
<动+动>*Since引导的时间状语从句
Since phoned you this morning,I have changed my plans.
=Since phoning you this morning,I have changed my plans.
*Since=because时不用现分作同义句
*但on和in可以作when和while解:
*When I found the front door open,I became suspicious.
当我发现大门开着时,我就起了疑心
=On finding the front door open,I became suspicious.
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*When I was trying to open the can,I cut my hand.在我试图打开罐头时,我划破了手.
=While trying to open the can,I cut my hand.
=In trying to open the can,I cut my hand.
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先作铺垫,再引主题用分词短语代替原因状语从句:
复合句->因急于讨好他,我给他买了一件礼品.
As I was anxious to please him,I bought him a present.
=Being anxious to please him,I bought him a present. *anxious急切的 *please讨好
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先作铺垫,再引主题用分词短语代替条件状语从句:
复合句->如去北方旅行,你必须在北京换车.
If you are travelling north,you must change at Beijing.
现分短语=If travelling north,you must change at Leeds.

条件从句->请付现金,除非你使用信用卡.
Unless you pay by credit card,please pay in cash.
=Unless paying by credit[`kredit] card, please pay in cash现金.
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先作铺垫,再引主题用分词代替让步状语从句:
复合句->尽管他承认他收受了盗窃的珠宝,但他否认参与了抢劫案.
While he admitted that he had received the stolen jewellery,
he denied having taken part in the robbery.

=While admitting that he received the stolen jewellery,
he denied having taken part in the robbery.*deny[di`nai]否认vt.*robbery抢劫案n.
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先作铺垫,再引主题用分词短语代替定语从句:
复合句->即将进8号站台的列车是8:00从香港开来的。*which引导的限制性定语从句
The train which is arriving at Platform 8 is the 8.00 from Hong Kong.
=The train arriving at Platform 8 is the 8.00 from Hong Kong.
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先作铺垫,再引主题用分词短语代替原因状语从句:
复合句->我们邀请他来这儿讲演,所以我们最好去听讲。
We have invited him here to speak,

so we'd better go to his lectre.*so 引导的原因状语从句
=Having invited him here to speak, we'd better go to his lecture.

复合句->这天是银行假日,所有的商店都关门。
As it was a bank holiday,all the shops were shut.

正式文体=It being a bank holiday,all the shopa were shut.*It being=As=由于这一天是...
...............................
复合句->我被定成超编人员,所以我打算出国。
I have been made redundant,so I'm going abroad.
=Having been made redundant,so I'm going abroad.*redundant被解雇的a.
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先作铺垫,再引主题正式的书面语中being/having been的短语用法:
复合句->他病得厉害,还不能回去工作.
He is so ill he can't go back to work yet.
=Being so ill he can't go back to work yet.*Being=He is
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比 较:他病重,在一个月内不能回去工作的。
=
He was so ill he couldn't go back to work for a month.
=Being so ill, he couldn't go back to work for a month.
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比 较:他病了很久,所以他在回去工作以前还需要时间恢复
He has(或had)been ill for a very long time,so he needs/
needed more time recover before he can/could go back to work.
=Having been ill for a very long time,
he needs/needed more time to recover before he can/could go back to work.
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先作铺垫,再引主题with/without+分词短语的用法:
单句->人群欢呼.The crowds cheered.皇室成员1行驱车到皇宫去.
The royal party drove to the palace.

With the crowds cheering,the royal party drove to the palace.
在人群的欢呼声中,皇室成员一行驱车到皇宫去。

单句->他们争论了几个小时.They debated for hours.
没有作出决定.No decision was taken.*[di`beit]

They debated for hours without a decision being taken.
他们争论了几个小时,也没作出决定

并列->I was reading my newspaper and I heard the doorbell ring.读报时我听到门铃响了.
=Reading my newspaper,I heard the doorbell ring.
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先作铺垫,再引主题过去分词短语=被动语态的用法:
复合句->从远处眺望时,尼彭西岛就象一朵云。
When it was viewed from a distance the island of Nepenthe looked like a cloud.
=Viewed from a distance, the island of Nepenthe looked like a cloud.*view[vju:]眺望
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复合句->虽然发动机是战前造的,但仍然工作良好。
Although it was built before the war,the engine is still in perfect理想的 order.
=Although built before the war,the engine is still in perfect order状况.
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复合句->如果同意你任此职,到五月一日你将得到通知
If you are accepted for this post,you will be informed by May 1st.
=If accepted for this post,you will be informed by May 1st.*[poust]公开宣布某事
....................
复合句->这项法令除非进行修改,否则将给农民的生活造成困难。
Unless it is changed,this law will make life difficult for farmers.
=Unless changed,this law will make life difficult for farmers.
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复合句->在我们得知飞机要推迟起飞后,我们另作了安排
Afer/When we were infirmed the flight would be delayed,we made other arrangements.
=Afer/On being infirmed the flight would be delayed,we made other arrangements.
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复合句->这个学校所施行的制度是非常成功的。
The system which is used in this school is very successful.
=The system used in this school is very successful.
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复合句->总统坐在总统车里,向人群挥手。
Seated in the presidential总统的 car,the President waved to the crowd.
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复合句->直到Mom的母亲把一切对他和盘托出,他才明白母亲为什么跟他生气。
陈述Tom didn't understand why his mother was angry with him until she told him everything.
倒装Non until his mother told him everything did Tom understand why she was angry with him.
强调It was not until his mother told him everything
that Tom understand why she was angry with him
.
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现位置翻译技巧*请学/教英语者访问[2]种词法

英语10万个为什么?
1.有几个"也"→为什么?答:4个.深入与浅出的表述
Are they coming as well?他们也来吗?<动态句>
Do you want to come
too?你也想来吗? *多见口译.
I am not a student,
either.我也不是学生.<判断句>
Tom
also play football.Tom也玩足球.动态句

2.so与such遇形容词做定语时冠词位置不同吗为什么?答:对.冠词位置不同.
She is so good a teacher that all of us love and respect[ri`spekt] her.
She is such a good teacher that all of us love and respect her.
她是一名如此好的教师,以致于大家都敬爱她.<判断句+动态句>

3.情态动词从叠使用可以吗为什么?答:可以.强调的色彩较浓。
如 Would I be able to help?我能帮上忙吗?<答疑完>
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