赵氏52英语讲解从句  著作:太阳 ZHAOFU

从句虚拟欢迎您!【讲座】
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[教学目的]由简单句向复杂句推进。
[要点]1.从句=句中句.从句有引导词,主句无引导词(除谓语外都有从句).
2.虚拟语气=条件状语从句.即,它的扩展与延伸.*虚拟见第24课
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第1课 主语从句/引导词Whatever/what/who/which/whether/when/where/why/how/that...

定义 主语=1个句子。*以表述讲解静态事物为特征.
Whatever I have is yours.我有的就是你的.(+)
Where he has gone is not known yet.他已经去了哪里尚无人知道.(=主动+被动)
What we need is more time.(+)我们需要的是更多的时间。*变问句时用it+be...转换.
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2课 主语从句 [句型转换公式]

A.It+be+形+that从句
Is it certain that we'll vist your school?我们要参观你们的学校定下了没有?(+

B.It+be+名词词组+that从句
It is common knowledge that the sun rises in the east.它是1个常识,太阳从东方升起.

C.It+be+过分+that从句
It is said that he was once a tutor.听说他曾经是一位家庭教师.(被动+
如 It is though that the Prime Minister will visit Beijing.据估计首相将于下个月访问北京.

D.It+seem/happen/chanced(不及物)+that从句
It seems that she is ill.好象她病了.
*C/D不能翻转成非it形式:that she is ill seems.×
如 It seems that he is not a scholar.他不象是一个学者.
It happened/chanced that I was buy doing my homework when he came.
我正巧在忙于写作业,这时他来了.
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第3课表语从句
引导词:what whether when which where why how that because/as~though/as~if/in order to

定义:表语=1个句子。*以表述静态事物为特征.
The question is who will go with us.问题是谁同我们一道去 +
Is it because we are closer to the sun in summer than we are in winter?
那是因为我们在夏天比在冬天距离太阳更近一些吗?
It seems as though the storm will come soon.暴风雨好象就要来了.

It looked as if it was going to rain.天看样子要下雨.
That is why he was late.那就是他迟到的原因。
That is where he lives.那就是他住的地方。 +
He is not what he used to be.他不再是过去的他了。 +
Is it in order to speak now?现在可以发言吗?
I mind whther you like me or not.我很在意你是否喜欢我.+
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名词性从句总结
主语从句\宾语从句\表语从句和同位语从句都是名词的功能,统称为名词性从句。
引导名词从句的连词
⑴that引导名词性从句,只起连接主从句的作用,不在从句中充当句子成分,也不具有词义。
that引导的名词性从句作动词宾语时,that可以省略。作其他句子成分that不能省略。that
引导的名词性从句作主语\表语是形容词时,多用形式主语it。
句式
①It is important(necessary, strange, natural等)that…这些形容词作表语强调
说话者的感受,主语从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语气should+动词原型。should可以省略。
句式②It is clear(possible,impossible,obvious,likely,right,true,certain等)
that…这些形容词说明事实,主语从句中用陈述语气。

⑵if与whether,词义“是否”,if引导的名词性从句只能作动词宾语,可与whether互换。
其他成分的名词性从句只用whether引导,包括作介词宾语,whether…or not,whether to do sth。

⑶所有的疑问代词和疑问副词都作连词引导名词性从句,同时又在从句中充当句子成分。
what疑问代词代替物在从句中作主语\宾语和表语。who,whose,which,where,when,how,why,(because) how long,how far,how soon,how many,how much,
how many times, how often, how tall, how high等疑问词都引出从句的同时在从句中
充当句子成分。名词性从句要用陈述句语序。

⑷疑问词+ever结构可以引导让步状语从句等于no matter + 疑问词,也可以引导名词性
从句并在从句中充当句子成分。whatever,whichever,whoever,however,whenever,wherever等
引导的名词性从句语气强、疑问词所代替的人或物不确定。

⑸表示“这是因为……”的句式:
①The reason is that…主语是reason,表语要用that引出名词性从句说明reason的内容。
②This is because…用because引出的从句作表语,主语不再使用reason。
③That's why…用why引出的表语从句强调结果,主语也不再用reason。
⑹在It's certain that…句式中,不可用sure代替certain。
人作主语时,表语用sure和certain都可以,但物作主语只用rertain来描述。
如果表达人对天气的看法可用sure.例 It is sure to rain.

2.与下列相关的名词性从句,都用虚拟语气should+动词原形。should在从句中可以省略。
在否定句中要保留not,这些词表示愿望、请求、命令、建议等。如 suggest,suggestion,order, demand,advise,desire,propose,require,request,insist。
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第4课宾语从句

[动宾结构]规则 谓语+句子
定义:宾语=1个句子.*以表述动态事物为特征.
引导词--what who which when where why how that...
I want to know what you are writing.我想知道你正在写什么呢?
I want to know why he was late.我想知道他为什么迟到。
I want to know when he arrived.我想知道他何时到的。+
I want to know what you are playing.我想知道你们正在玩什么呢。
Tell me what you are play?
告诉我,你们正在玩什么呢?
She said she would tell him what she thought.她说她将告诉他他在想什么.*宾语从句中含宾语从句
I don't think that he will come.我不认为他会来。+
We discussed whether we should put off the meeting.+
我们讨论了会议是否应该延期。*discuss后面不用if引导"是否"...
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宾语从句的省略:

问 Do you think you will lose the game?你认为你会输掉游戏吗?
答 No,I hope not.不,我可不希望那样.

问 Will it rain tomorrow?明天会下雨吗?
答 I hope so.能下.或改为否定形式:I hope not.但愿不会下.

考点 think,say,believe,suppose,hope,expect,be afraid +not时,not代表了被省略的否定
宾语从句;若将not改为so后,就代表了被省略的肯定宾语从句;
再如:
问 Do you think (that)it's going to rain?你认为会下雨吗?
答 Yes,I think so.是的,我认为会.

问 Will he come?他会来吗?
答 Yes,I suppose so.对,我想他能来.

问 Will he be late?他会迟到吗?
答 I expect so.我想会的.[iks`pekt]vt.i.预期

问 He's got the job?他已经得到那份工作了?
答 So she said.她是这么说的.
问 Wouldn't you say so?你不这样认为吗?

问 Does he know?他知道吗?
答 I believe not.我认为他不知道.
问 Is he coming?他来吗?
答 I believe so.我想他能来.或改为否定形式:I believe not.我想他不来.
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5课宾语从句[介宾结构]规则:介词+句子
It depends[di`pendz] on When he did it.取决于他何时干了此事.
What's wrong with what I have on?我穿的衣服有什么不对吗?
I haven't settled the question of whether I'll go back home. settle[`setl]
我还没有决定我是否要回家的问题.*介词后面不用if引导"是否"...
I know nothing about him except that he lives downstairs.我只知道他住楼下,其他不知.*同上
Can you see the house from where you're standing?你站的位置能看到那房子吗?*同上
I'm interested in When he did it.我感兴趣的是他何时干了此事
I'm interested in how he did it.我感兴趣的是他怎样地做这件事。
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6课宾语从句[形宾结构]规则:形容词+句子

We're very sorry that we didn't see you.非常遗憾我们没有见到你。
He was sure that nobody there would steal the money.他确信,那里没人会偷钱的。
I am extremely glad that she is all right now.她现在都好,我高兴极了.[iks`tri:mli]
She is proud that she is the cheerleader of the school.她以当学校啦啦对队队长而自豪。
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第7
宾语从句[that不省略]规则:谓语+句子
*agree observe learn argue[`a:gju:]等动词后面跟的句子:不省略 that.
Do we all agree that the proposal is a good one?我们都同意这个建议是一个好建议吗?
I agree that he tried hard.我同意(承认)他是尽力了。
Do you agree that the suggestion is justified?你认为这个建议是情有可原的吗?

He observed that it would probably rain.他说(观察)天可能要下雨。
He observed that it was a lovely day.他说(观察)天气真好。
The girl suddenly leared that Tom himself was in town.女孩突然获悉TOM本人就在城里。
I argued that we needed a larger office.我们力争要一个大一些的办公室。
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宾语从句总结
宾语从句的概念:由一个句子充当宾语,我们称之为宾语从句。
宾语从句的语序:永远是陈述句。
宾语从句的连词:如果宾语从句是从陈述句变化而来,要用连词that来引导,that可省略。
如果宾语从句是从一般疑问句变化而来,要用连词if或whether。如果宾语从句是从特
殊疑问句变化来,连词就该用特殊疑问词。宾语从句的时态:主句的谓语动词是一般现在时或
一般将来时,从句的谓语动词可以为任何时态。
Why he didn’t come?
How you do it?
Can you tell mewhere the meeting will be?
Who he is walking with?
What he was doing at six yesterday?
Where he has gone.
从句中有表示某一过去特定的时间状语,其谓语动词表示的动作虽发生在
主句谓语动词表示的动作之前,一般不用过去完成时,而用一般过去时。
如:I said I was born in 1980.我说我出生在1980年。
I told him I joined the League last year.我告诉他我去年入了团。
当宾语从句表示真理、科学原理及自然现象时,从句子的谓语动词不受主句的制约,采用一般现在时。
如 The teacher told us that light travels faster than sound.老师告诉我们光比声音传播得快。
宾语从句的人称:人称代词要随合理的逻辑而自然变化。
如:She said,“I am much better than before.”→She said she was much better than before.
when和if在引导宾语从句和状语从句中,后面的时态有差别。
如:Please let me know when your brother comes back.(状语从句)你哥哥回来时,请告诉我。
I want to know when she will come back.( 宾语从句)我想知道她什么时候回来。
I don't know when she will come back.But when she comes back,I'll let you know.
我不知道她什么时候回来。但是,当她回来时,我会告诉你
[注]在状语从句中,when的意思是“当……时候”;在宾语从句中,when是“何时”。
if也是一样,在状语从句中,译为“如果,假如”;在宾语从句中,译为“是否”。
如 I don’t know if she will come back. But if she comes back,
I'll let you know.我不知道她是否回来,但如果她回来,我会告诉你。
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8同位语从句 定义:同位语=1个句子.*以修饰静态事物为特征.
引导词—which who whom whether how when where why that...
The news that he has been defeated is not true.他已经当选的消息是不真实的.that=只作引导词
定语:The news that he heard just now is not true.他刚才听到的消息是不真实的.that=引导词=news
You have no idea how worried I was.你可不知道我当时是怎么着急啊!(+)
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9定语从句
[限制性定语从句]

定义:补充限制性定语从句后原句才完整,以修饰静态事物为特征.
*that=who/whom/which=主语=宾语.
如 He is the man who/whom/that I met.他就是我遇到的那个人.*who/whom/that=宾语
This is the phone which/that I took.这就是我拍的照片.
*that=who/whom/which=宾语时可省略
*that≠to whom/in which介词宾语(但无介词限制时可使用.
*限制性定语从句的非正式文体可省略)。

He is the man to whom I gave the money.他就是我给他钱的那个人。
He is the man who/whom/that I gave the money to.他就是我给他钱的那个人。
He is the man I gave the money to. (省略)他就是我给他钱的那个人。
引导词—which/who/whom/whose/as/where/when/why/that to/from~whom/about/for/by/
in/on/with/without~which ...
.The person to whom I spoke just now is our headmaster.
我刚才同那位说话者是我们的校长。

That is the reason why(=for which) we must go now.那就是我们现在为什么必须走的原因。
That is the place where(=in which) we lived.那就是我们住过的地方.+
I'll never forget the day when(on which)I joined the army.我决不会忘记我当兵的那一天。
Water is a thing without which man can't live.水是人类生存不可缺少的。+

The reason why you failed is quite clear.你为什么没有及格的原因是很清楚的。
The girl who told me the news is not here now.告诉我消息的那名女孩现在不在此处。
He is not the same man as he was.他和过去不同了.*the same后的引导词as=主/宾/表

Don't trust such men as praise you to your face. +
不要信任那些当面夸奖你的人。*such后的引导词as=主/宾/表

I have the same opinion as/that you have.我和你的观点一样。*抽象概念as=that
I have the same opinion as you.我和你的观点一样。*当主谓被省略时that不能替代as。
This is the same computer as I used yesterday.这就是我昨天用的那台计算机。*as=2件相似

This is the same computer that I used yesterday.这就是我昨天用的那台计算机。*that=1件
The boy that helped me is my brother.帮我忙的那名男孩是我的弟弟。
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10课
定语从句[提示1] *who,all,any,anything,还有very/last/the most+N时:

1.Who is the person that is standing at the gate?
在门口站着的
那个人是谁?*Who/that=同一个人
2.All that can be done must be done.凡能做到的都必须做。(=被动+被动)

3.Ask any person that is likely to know.去问一下或许知道该事的人。
4.You told me to take anything that I wanted.你让我随便挑选的。
5.This is the very book that I want. 这正是我要的那本书。(+ )

6.The last place that we visited yesterday was the Summer Palace.
我们昨天参观了最后的一个地方是颐和园。
7.This is the most beautiful city that I have ever visited.
这是我所访问过的最美的城市。
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第11课定语从句[提示2]

1.My computer is not the machine that it was.我的计算机不如从前好了.*思考 it was that=中文
2.The computer that you want is on the desk.你要的那台电脑在书桌上面.*思考you want that=中文
3.They talked of thing and persons that they remembered in the school.
*思考:they remember that=中文.他们谈起了在校时所能回忆起的人和事。
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第12课定语从句
[非限制性定语从句]

定义:限制性定语从句补充前原句也完整,以修饰静态事物为特征.*that≠who/whom/which.
1.You are good at English,as/which we all know.你擅长英语,我们都知道。+

2.The Thames,which is now clean enough to swim in,was polluted for over a hundred years.
泰晤士河现在已经很干净了,可以游泳,它曾经被污染了1百多年。

3.As we have seen,oceans cover more than 70 percent of the earth.*As在句首时不能用which替换.
我们已经知道,海洋占地球总面积的70%以上。
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第13课定语从句
[分隔性定语从句]
定义:定语与前置词被分隔。其性质属于限制性定语从句。
I was the only person in our school who was invited.我是我们学校唯一被邀请的人。
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定语从句总结:
被定语从句所修饰的词称为先行词。引导定语从句的连词称为关系词。关系词引导定语从句
要代替先行词在从句中充当句子成分。定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句两
种。限制性定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后,非限制性定语从句要用逗号与主句分开。

关系词又分为关系代词和关系副词。关系代词代替先行词在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语
和定语。关系副词代替先行词在定语从句中作时间状语、地点状语和原因状语。关系词 which
关系代词,代替物在从句中作主语和宾语。

that关系代词,可以代替物也可以代替人,在从句中作主语,宾语和表语。
who关系代词,代替人在从句中可以作主语也可以作宾语。
whom关系代词,代替人在从句中作宾语。
whose关系代词,可以代替人也可以代替物,在从句中作定语。
when关系副词,代替先行词在从句中作时间状语。
where关系副词,代替先行词在从句中作地点状语。
why关系副词,代替先行词the reason在从句中作原因状语。Why等于for which引导的定语从句。
as关系代词,代替先行词在从句中作主语、宾语和表语。当先行词是the same,such或被the same,
such所修饰的先行词,定语从句要用as引导。as也可以引导非限制性定语从句,从句的位置可在
句首、句中或句尾。
关系代词as有“正如”“像”的意义。非限制性定语从句中出现以下动词作谓语,要用as引导非
限制性定语从句。这些动词有:say,know,report,expect,imagine,announce,see,believe,
think,find,declare,be usual等。
2.关系代词which与that的区别,一般情况下which与that可以互换,以下情形不能互换:

⑴只用that引导定语从句的情况
先行词是不定代词one, all, few, any, little, much, many, none, everything, nothing, something, anything等。
由the only, the last, the very, the same以及冠词the所修饰的先行词。
被序数词和形容词最高级所修饰的先行词。
先行词既有人又有物。
主句是由which或who引导的特殊疑问句时,定语从句只用that不用which和who,避免同形重复。

⑵只用which引导定语从句的情形
直接作介词宾语。即介词移到关系代词前面。

引导非限制性定语从句。which引导的非限制性定语从句,表示说话人的看法,或对主句、主句中的先行词或短语进行补充说明。which代替主句或主句中和一部分,在从句中作主语或宾语。which引导的非限制性定语从句补充说明先行词的样子、状态、性质、特征、用途等。因此,which引导的非限制性定语从句不能在句首。
⑶关系代词代替先行词在定语从句中作宾语时可以省略。
⑷“way”表示“方式”“方法”意义作先行词时,引导定语从句的关系代可以是that,that也可省略,也可用in which。
⑸关系代词作介词宾语时,如果介词与从句中的谓语动词的关系不紧密,要把介词移到关系代词的前面。
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14课10大状语从句
定义:状语=1个句子。*以修饰动态事物为特征,=副词,对动词进行补充。
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第15课 状语 1.原因状语从句
引导词because/so/why/for/as/now that/in that/since/inasmuch as/seeing that/inasmuch as...
He is very tired because he had to get up early this morning.
他非常困倦,因为他今天早晨不得不早起。
I lost my bike so I had to buy a new one.我的自行车丢失了,所以我不得不买一台新的。
I want to know why you are busy.Tell me why you are buy.
我想知道你为什么忙.告诉我你为什么忙。
Why is it that she is alway late?为什么她总迟到呀?
I am sorry for what I said to you.我后悔不该对你将讲那些话.

We rarely stay in hotels,for we can't afford it.我们很少住旅馆,因为我们住不起。

We didn't know what to do as we were just visiting ehere.
我们不知道该怎么办,因为我们仅仅在那里访问而以.

I want to work now that I am well again.我想去工作,因为我又健康了.
This book is different from that book in that this one is about English.
这本书不同与那一本,因为这一本是有关英语方面的。
Since we've no money we can't buy a new car.因为我们没钱所以无法买1辆新车.(+)
I didn't criticize[`kritisaiz] her acting,inasmuch as I really didn't feel competent.
我没有去评论她的演技,因为我确实觉得并不在行
Seeing that he is ill,we'll do the work for him.由于他病了,我们来代他做这件工作。
I did not criticize[`kritisaiz] her acting,inasmuch as I really did not feel competent.
我没有去评论她的演技,因为我确实觉得这方面自己并不在行
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16
状语 2.时间状语从句

引导词:when/while/as/whenever/before/after/as soon as/once/since/until/till/

 directly[di`rektli]/by the time/every time/the moment...

All time is no time when it is past.   光阴一去不复返.

Don't fuss me while I'm driv ing.    我开车时别打扰我.

They shouted as they ran.      他们边跑边喊。

Come to see us whenver you can.    当你有空的时候,来看看我们。

I 'm ready whenver you can.     当你有空的时候,我无所谓。

Before he went to school he had had his breakfast.他吃完早餐就去上学了。

He arrived after the show was over.他到达是在表演结束后。

It's warm as soon as spring arrives.春天一到就暖和了。

Don't worry.You'll be fine once you're there.不必担心,当你一上台就好了。

I have known Tom since he was a little boy.Tom是个小男孩时我就认识他.

He has long since left.此人早已他去。

It's long time since they left.他们走后好久了。

He lived in England until he was seventeen.他在英国一直住到17岁.

Don't leave till I arrive.我到达前,你别离开.

He came directly I called.打去电话他来了.*多见英式

By the time the dawn came,the wind stopped.黎明,风停止了。

Every time there was a dinner,he hosted table one.
每次
晚宴他都以主人身份在头桌.(+)

She is wearing a different dress every time I see her.

每次我见到她时,她都穿着不同的服装.(+)

The moment she saw the silk coverlet,she bought it.看到那绸床罩买下了。

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17
状语 3.结果状语从句

 引导词:so/so that/so...that.../such...or/such...that/in that/in so far as...

 He couldn't find his pen,so he wrote in pencil.他找不着钢笔,所以他用铅笔写。

He was ill,so that he couldn't go to school.他病了,结果没能来上学.+

The weather became so bad that they had to turn back.
天气变坏结果他们只好原路返回.

Don't deal with such a person or you will be taken in.
别和那种人打交道,否则你会上当。

 She has made such great progress that her teachers are very glad.

 她进步如此地快,其结果使老师们很高兴.

The demonstration was fairly peaceful
in that
there were only one or two clashes with

 the police.示威运动相当平和的,结果与警方只发生一两次冲突。*(描+)

 =The demonstration was fairly peaceful in so far as there were only one or two

 clashes with the police.

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18课 状语


4.比较状语从句
引导词:while/whereas/as...as.../...访问点击→10大公式

 English is understood all over the would
while
Turkish isspoken by only a few people

 outside Turkey itself.英语世界通行对比土耳其语,它离开本国就很少有人说了。

 Some people like fatty meat,whereas others hate it.
一些人喜欢肥肉,对比另一些人却不喜欢。

 Tom is as clever a boy as his brother.
Tom是一名如此聪明的男孩,象他的哥哥.*boy须明确范围

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19
状语 5.方式状语从句

引导词:as /as if/ as though/just as...当由(in) the way/ (in) the way that/the way in which/

(in) the same way/(in) the same way as 引导时表示比较。

A white flag is used as a token of surrender.白旗被用来作为投降标志

He spends as if he were a millionaire.   他花钱好象他是一位百万富翁似的。

He talked about Rome as though he had been there.他谈起罗马好象他去过似的。

I don't mind at all,just as you like.  我一点也不在呼,按你喜欢的方式做.

The way in which the crime[kraim罪] was committed犯 was absolutely绝对地 vile[vail恶的].

(*The way in which引导的主语从句=被动形式,was=系动词,vile=表语)案件的情节十分恶劣.(+)

She's behaving (in) the same way her elder sister used to.
她的举止和她的姐姐过去一模一样。

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20状语 6.让步状语从句

引导词:though/although/even if/even/though/as/whether/whether...or /while/whoever/=no matter who/no matter what(whatever)/no matter how(however)/however hard/no matter where(wherever)/considering(that)/much as/whereas/however much/however hot/no matter how much/...

He went out,though it was raining. 尽管天在下雨,他还是出去了.

He will come on time even though it rains. 即使天下雨他还是会准时赶来。

Although he failed,he has done his best. 尽管没及格,他也付出了最大地努力.

I'll go even if it rains.     即使天下雨,我也要去.

Even though you can't finish it,others may go on.即使你做不完,别人也能继续.

*as引导的让步状语从句用倒装形式:点击→倒装与其它

I don't know whether you like flowers,sir.   不知道您是否喜欢花,先生。

You'll have to pay whether you want to or not. 你不得不付款,不管你是否青愿.

I like tea while she likes coffee.    我喜欢茶,而她却喜欢咖啡。

Whoever goes ,I'll not go.     无论谁去,我都不去.

This is not true, no matter who says so.   无论谁说,这也不是真的.

Don't trust him,no matter what he says.  别相信他,无论他说什么。

=Don't trust him, whatever he says.

I have to go no matter how far it is.  无论多远,我也得去。

No matter where you go,you see cars and people. 无论你去那儿,你都会见到车和人。

She decided not to go picnicking,considering that the weather was uncertain.

由于(考虑到)天气变幻莫测,她决定不去野餐了。

Much as I would like to stay,I really must go home.
虽然想停留在这儿,可我确实必须回家。

Some people like fatty meat,whereas others hate it.
一些人喜欢肥肉,另一些人则讨厌它。

You have to finish the vegetables,however much you hate it.

你必须吃掉这些蔬菜,不管有多么讨厌它。

He will never succeed however hard he tries.他将不会获得成功,不论多么努力

However hot it is, he will not take off his coat.无论多热,他也不会脱掉外衣。

No matter how much he cut down he could not make both ends meet.

不论节省多少,他还是入不敷出。

However brilliant you are be,you can't know everything.
不管你有多么聪明,也不可能什么都知道。

=However brilliant you may be, you can't know everything.
*may be将(=are现)=正式文体

Whatever you think,I'm going ahead with my plans.不管你怎么想,我都要施行我的计划。

Whatever you may think,
I'm going ahead with my plans.*may think将(=think现)=正式文体

*副词/形容词/动词+as/ though+让步状语从句=倒装 如:↓

Unlikely as it sounds/may sound, what I'm telling you is true.
*may sound将=正式文体

不管听起来怎样不可能,我告诉你的话是真的。

Beautiful though the necklace was,
we thought it was overpriced so we didn't buy it.

不管项链如何漂亮,我们还是认为价钱太贵,没有买它。

Try as he might,he couldn't solve the problem.尽管他作了努力,还是未能解决问题。

*as/though引导的从句可用倒装:点击→倒装与其它

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21
状语 7.地点状语从句 引导词:where/wherever/anywhere/everywhere

Can you tell me where the toilets are?    你能告诉我洗手间在哪儿吗?

Sit wherever you like.       随意坐.(+)

You can't camp anywhere you like these days.  如今你可不能随意在哪儿宿营。

=You can't camp where/wherever you like these days.

His dog follows him everywhere he goes. 无论他到哪里,他的狗总是跟着他。

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22
状语

8.目的状语从句
引导词:in order that/so that/lest/for fear (that)/in case...

Then I will go out in order that I don't disturb you.为了打扰你,那么我要出去.

Why don't you open the windows so that the room can air?
为什么不打开窗户,以便通风.

I arrived early so that/in order that I might not miss anything.

(也可用should not和would not,但不能用could not=表"技能")我到得很早,以免错过什么。

=I arrived early so as not to miss anything.

Take time when time comes lest time steal away.机不可失,时不再来。

Be careful lest[lest] you slip.小心,以免滑倒。

He hid behind the tree lest he should be seen.他躲藏在树后以免被人看见。

We didn't tell you about this bad news,for fear that you might be angry.

我们没有告诉你关于这个坏消息,担心你会生气。

I bought the car at once for fear (that) he might change his mind.

我马上买下那辆汽车,以免他变卦.*for fear+might(过/将)

=I bought the car at once in case he changed his mind.*in case+changed(过)

Take the raincoat in case it rains.带着雨衣,以防下雨。

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23课 状语


9.程度状语从句
引导词:insofar/as soon as/as/such...that../as far as/in so far as...

I'll help you insofar as I can.我会尽力帮助你。

Please come as soon as you can.请你尽早地来.

She would go as soon as not.她可太乐意去了。

A thief knows a thief as a wolf knows a wolf.贼认识贼,就象狼认识狼的程度.

It was such a fine day that we went out for a walk.
那是一个如此的好天,于是我们出去散步了。

I'll help you as far as I can.我将尽我所能去帮助你。

This is the truth in so far as I know it.我所知范围,这是真实情况。

In so far as you are a student,you are free to use the library.

只要你是学生,便可免费使用该图书馆。

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例句合成
:

1.After he had finished work he went home.他结束工作回家了.

比较 He finished work.He went home.他结束工作.他回家了.

2.The children ran away after they had broken the window.孩子们打碎了玻璃之后跑了.

比较 The children ran away.They broke the window.孩子们跑了.他们打碎了玻璃.

3.As soon as the sun had set we returned to our hotel.太阳一下山我们就回到了旅馆.

比较 The sun set.We returned to our hotel.太阳下山了.我们回到了旅馆.

4.When he had finished lunch he asked for a glass of water.他吃完中午饭后要了1杯水.

比较 He finished lunch.He asked for a glass of water.他吃完了中午饭.他要一杯水。

5.I had not understood the problem until he explained it.在他解释之前我不懂这个问题.

比较 did not understand the problem.He explained it.我不懂这个问题.他解释了。

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状语从句总结1

特点:状语从句在复合句中起状语的作用,修饰主句中的谓语动词、形容词或副词。

状语从句由从属连词引导,从属连词在句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。

分类:根据意义上的不同,状语从句分为:时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、方式状语从句、条件状语从句、结果状语从句、让步状语从句、比较状语从句。

⑴时间状语从句

引导时状语从句的连词有: when, before, after, while, since, as, till, as soon as, the moment, the minute, once, no sooner…than, hardly…when, whenever.

①when

when引导时间状语时,表示主句谓语动词的动作与从句谓语动词的动作是同时发生的,或者从句的动作发生在主句的动作之前的。可表示“一段”时间或“一点”时间。

例: She was taking a walk when I called her.我叫她时,她正在散步。

②while

while引导时间状语从句强调主句的动作和从句的动作在某一时间内同时发生,意为“在……期间,在……过程中”。while引导的时间状语从句只能表示一段时间(同延续性动词连用),不能表示一点时间(不可同非延续性动词连用)。

例:While she was watching, she heard the bell ring.她正在看电视时听到了门铃响。

③as

as引导的时间状语从句表示“当……时,一边……一边”,指主句的动作和从句的动作同时发生,既可以表示一段时间(同延续性动词连用),也可以表示一点时间(同非延续性动词连用)。

例: I saw her as she was getting off the bus.她下汽车时我看见了她。

When she was a child

While she was a child she lived in Harbin.(均可表示一段As she was a child时间)

④before

before引导的时间状语从句所表示的动作发生在主句动作之后。如果强调主句的动作先完成或先发生,则主句谓语要用过去完成时,before引导的从句用一般过去时;如不强调动作的先后,主句和从句均用一般过去时。

例: He worked in Hangzhou before he came here.他来这里之前在杭州工作。

⑤after

after引导的时间状语从句所表示的动作发生在主句动作之前。如果强调动作的先后,after从句用过去完成时,主句用一般过去式;如果不强调动作的先后,而表示连续的动作,主句和从句均用一般过去时。

例: I shall write to you after I finish(have finished) the work.做完工作后我将给你写信。

⑵地点状语从句

地点状语从句通常由where和wherever等引导。地点状语从句位于句首时,常用逗号与主句隔开;位于句尾时则不用逗号。

例: She follows him wherever he goes.

他无论到哪里她总跟着。

⑶条件状语从句

引导条件状语从句的词或词组有: if, unless, so long as, as long as, in case, if only, provided that等。

例: If I had enough money, I would buy the car.如果我有足够的钱,我就买汽车了。

⑷原因状语从句

引导原因状语从句的词或词组有: because, since, as, now that等。

例: Because he was ill, he was absent yesterday.因为他病了,他昨天没有来。

⑸比较状语从句

引导比较状语从句的词或词组有: than, the(+比较级)…the(+比较级), as(+原级)…as, not as (so)(+原级)…as等。

例: Tom went to school earlier than Kate did.汤姆上学比凯特早。

⑹方式状语从句

引导方式状语从句的词或词组有as, just as …so, as if等。as if引导的从句的时态要用过去时。

例: Please do as I do. 请照我做的那样去做。

⑺目的状语从句

引导目的状语从句的词或词组有: that, so that, so, in order that, in case, for fear that, lest等。目的状语从句中的谓语常含有may, might, can, could, should, would情态动词等。

例: He studied hard so that he might succeed.他努力学习,以便成功。

⑻结果状语从句

引导结果状语从句的词或词组有: so, so that, so…that, such…that等。

例: Nothing more was heard of him, so people thought that he was dead.

没有再听到他的消息,所以人们都认为他死了。

⑼让步状语从句

引导让步状语从句的词或词组有: though, although, even if, even though, however, whatever, no matter who等。

例: Although he has failed many times, he doesn’t give up trying.

虽然他失败了许多次,但他仍不放弃努力。

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状语从句和并列连词总结2
状语从句说明谓语动作发生的时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、方式、伴随等。

⑴下列连词引导时间状语从句: when, while, as, after, before, since, until / till, as soon as = the moment (the minute, the instant immediately directly)+句子。

on + 动词(hearing, seeing, returning)或名词(arrival, return等)也等于as soon as。

①when可表示点的时间或段的时间,因此,从句中终止性动词、状态性动词或延续性动词都可以使用。when还可作并列连词,放在句中,表示突然发生一个动作。常用句式a. 主语+ was / were doing when… b. 主语+ was / were about to do when… c. 主语+ had (not) done sth for some time when…

②while表示段的时间。因此从句中只使用状态性动词或延续性动词。主从句都是进行时要用while。while可以作并列连词,表示对比的意义“而”“却”。
as引导时间状语从句,与when相似,表示“一边……一边……”只用as。除此之外as还可引出各种从句。

a. 引导方式状语“像……一样”“按照……”

b. 引导原因状语,语气比because弱。表示“由于……”,多用于句首。

c. 引导定语从句。

d. 引导让步状语从句。

as引导的让步状语从句,部分句子成分要前置,“主系表”要表语前置,“主谓状”要状语前置,“主谓”要谓语前置。
before的常用句式:

a.主语had(not)done sth for some time before…肯定句“好久……才……”否定句“不久……就……”

b. It will (not) + 一段时间+ before…

It was (not) + 一段时间+ before…

肯定句“要过……多久才……”

否定句“不久……就……”

c. 主句+ before sb can (could) do sth.“某人还没来得及做某事主句的动作就发生了”

d. 主句+ before sb knew it.“不知不觉地主句中的时间就过去了。”
since的常用句式

与since时间状语从句或介词短语连用,主句中谓语动词要用完成时。since从句中用过去时,since作介词要接过去的时间点作它的宾语。

It is + 一段时间+ since…

这个句式中,since 从句中使用终止性动词要译成肯定的意义。表示“做某事到现在已经多久了”,如果since 从句中使用的是状态性动词或延续性动词,要译成否定的意义。表示“多久没有做某事了”从句中动词用过去时。
not…until / till句式。

until 与 till 相同,但这个状语放在句首只使用until。

否定句表示“直到……才开始”(强调动作开始),延续性动词用于肯定句表示“直到……就结束”(强调动作结束)。

⑵引导原因状语从句的连词有because, as, since = now that(既然),还有并列连词 for用于补充说明原因,用逗号与前面分句隔开。只用because 回答why的提问。
so⑶引导条件状语从句的连词有:if, unless = if not,long as, once .

as⑷引导让步状语从句的连词有:though, although, whether…or…,as, even if = even though以及no matter+ 疑问词 =疑问词 + ever结构都可以引出让步状语。由though或although引导的让步状语从句中不再使用but,但可以与yet,still连用。

⑸引导目的状语从句的连词有:in order that…,so that…so that可以引导目的状语,也可以引导结果状语,一般目的状语从句中多使用情态动词。结果状语从句中陈述结局极少使用情态动词。

⑹引导结果状语从句的连词有:so that…, so…that…,such…that…。

⑺引导比较状语从句的连词有:as…as…,not as / so…as…, than…。

⑻引导方式状语从句的连词有:as if = as though, as在as if 和as though引导的方式状语从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语气。①用动词的过去时表达与现在事实相反。②用过去完成时表达与过去事实相反。③下列句型中as if或as though引导的名词性从句作表语,从句中谓语动词根据情况可用陈述,也可用虚拟。
It looks as if …
It seems as if …

⑼引导地点状语从句的连词有: where, whenever.

⑽引导伴随状语从句的连词有: as,with介词短语,或with复合结构,也作伴随状语。伴随状语还可用分词或形容词。
并列连词

并列连词连接相同的句子成分,如并列分句、并列短语、或并列从句等。

⑴and表示先后顺序、对比或因果关系的并列。

⑵but, yet, while表示转折对比的并列。

⑶however疑问副词也表示转折意义,但要用逗号与句子分开。

⑷so表示结果的并列。

⑸for表示原因的并列,对前一分句进行补充说明,或给予推断的原因,用逗号与前面句子分开。for引导的分句只能放在后面。

⑹whether…or①引导名词性从句,②引导让步状语从句。意思是:“不管……还是……”。

⑺.both A and B。A与B并重。若连接并列主语,谓语用复数形式。表示:“两者A和B都……”

⑻A as well as B,表示“A以及B”,重心在A,谓语动词与A保持一致。

⑼A…(and) B as well 表示“A…B也如此。”重心在A, 谓语与A保持一致。

⑽ not A but B,意思是“不是A而是B”,重心在B,谓语动词与B保持一致。

⑾ neither A nor B,意思是“既不是A也不是B”,A和B全否定。谓语动词要就近一致。

⑿ either A or B,意思是“或者A或者B”,谓语动词要就近一致。

⒀ or表示选择,意思是“或者”“还是”,
a. 用于否定句中的并列“和”。
b. 等于otherwise 意思是“否则”“要不然”。
c. 连接并列的选择项目。

⒁ however. Otherwise, therefore, still这些副词都可起并列连词的作用。

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24虚拟语气 10.条件状语从句=虚拟语气

第1类 真实条件(语气)公式 = if从句(现在/将来的条件)+ 主句(will的结果)

答 If I lose my job,I will go abroad.如果我失业了,我就出国。

中=You will do what if you lose your job?你将干什么,如果你失业了?

英=What will you do if you lose your job?*What will除外,英=中↑

第2类 想象条件(语气) 公式 = if从句(过去的条件)+主句(would的结果)

答 If I lost my job,I would go abroad.假如我失业了,我就出国。

中=You would do what if you lost your job?你会做什么呢,假如你失业了?

英=What would you do if you lost your job?*What would 除外,英=中↑

第3类 当时条件(语气) 公式 =if从句(完成了的条件)+主句(would have的结果)

答 If I had lost my job,I would have gone abroad.假如我当时失业了,我就会出国了。

中=You would have done what if you had lost your job?
你可能会做什么呢,假如你当时已经失业的话?

英=What would you have done if you had lost your job? *What would 除外,英=中↑
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25虚拟语气 时态:[第1,2,3类]的混合实践

[第1类]+[第3类]=If I am as clever as you think,I should have been rich by now.

如果我象你想的那么聪明,我现在就富了。

[第2类]+[第3类]=If you knew me better,you wouldn't have said that.

如果你更了解我,你就不会说那样的话了。

[第3类]+[第2类]=If I had had your advantages,I'd be better off now.

如果我有你的有利条件,我现在就好过了。

[第2类]+[第1类]=If he missed the bus, he won't be here on time.

如果他没赶上公共汽车,他就不能按时赶到了。

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26虚拟语气 实践[第1类] 公式=if现/将+主句will/现

 引导词:if/if only/in case/as(so) long as/unless=if~not/provided that/providing that/

on condition(that)/assuming(that)...

 If I am better tomorrow, I will get up.如果明天我好一些,我就起床。

 If he has been traveling all night, he will need a rest.
如果他走了一夜,他就需要消息一下。

 If I can afford it,I will buy it.如果我能负担得起,我就买下它。

 If I stay till May,I'll have been working here for 20 years.

如果我待到五月份,我在这里工作就满20年了。

 If you boil water, it turns into steam.如果你烧水,它就会转变成气体。

 Put that done, or else I'll smack you.把它放下,不然我揍你。

 I shall go there tomorrow unless it rains.*主/将,从/现 我明天将去那里,如果天不下雨.

= I shall go there tomorrow if it doesn't rain.我明天将去那里,如果天不下雨.

 If only it clears up, we'll go.只要天一放亮,我们就走.

 In case he comes,let me know.只要他来了,就告诉我.

Stay as long as you like.只要你喜欢,停留多久皆可.

I'll go,provided that you go too.假如你也去,我就去。

I'll agree to go providing that my expenses are paid.假如为我负担费用,我将同意去。

I'll do it on condition that you pay for everything.
我可以做此事,条件是你得支付一切费用。

We can all leave together assuming(that)the others aren't late.

我们大家可以一起走,假定其他人不耽搁的话。

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27虚拟语气 实践[第2类] 想象=if过去+主句would

If you took a taxi,you'd get there quicker.如果你叫了记乘车,你就会较快一些到那儿了。

If he were here,he could help us.如果他在这儿,他能够帮助我们。

If he were here,he might help us.如果他在这儿,他可能帮助我们。

I asked them to ring first lest[lest] we were out.我请他们打电话来,免得我们不在家。

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28课
虚拟语气 实践[第3类] 当时=if从句(完成)+主句would have

If he had been here yesterday,he could have told us.如果他昨天在这儿,他就会告诉我们了。

If he had been here yesterday,he might have told us.如果他昨天在这儿,他就有可能告诉我们了。

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