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加载中..............................................*从字母A...(页底:构词法\常见动词短语)↓

Aa[ei]-->The first letter in the English Alphabet is A.<1st> *英文解释部分=最好的口语资料!

1.a[ei,э]中文: 一个. 英文: one,or one of.<<=最好的口语,快来学吧!

 A doll is a toy.洋娃娃是一种玩具.>判断句 *a/an 表示1个时,想独立应用必须变为one.

 例<>One minues one equals zero.1-1=0 *minues[`mainэs]减*equal[`i:kwэl]等于
...........................................................................

2.an[ei,эen,эn]中文: 一个. 英文: one of.<=最好的口语资料,快来学吧!

I just finished writing an e-mail.我刚刚写完1封电子邮件.动态句[/过去时
例 An American student wants to see you.一位美国学生想见你.动态句/现在时

例 He was paid seven dollars an hour.他每小时的工资为7美圆.动态句/过去时
*用a还是an要看单词的读音而不是看 a,e,i,o,u 这5个元音字母,勿忘!
  
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3.a few[э`fju:]中文: 几个. : some but not many. <=最好的口语资料,快来学吧!

 A few girls sat on the sofa.几个女孩子坐在沙发上.动态句/过去时*可数名词前

*a good few不少 *have a few微醉 *not a few相当多

 She looks as if she has had a few.她看上去有些醉意.动态句+占有句/完成时
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4.a little[э`litl]中文: 少量. : not very much. *不可数名词前
5.a lot[э`l )t] of 中文: 很多. : very much. *可数/不可数名词前

 I haven't got a lot of time.我时间不多了. 占有句> 现在时 *不可数名词前
 There were a lot of presents.有很多礼品.存在句/过去时 *可数名词前
...............................................................................

6.able[eib] 中文: 能. : can. *反义词unable.

 He is an able person.他是1位能干的人.判断句/现在时 *考点记住an.

*be able to将能<替代can的将来时/完成时=can为一般性的能,不能同will搭配.

 Will you be able to come? 你能来吗?动态句[主]>将来时 *考点记住be.
 They haven't been able to come.他们已经不能来了.>>动态句[主]>>完成时
.
..............................................................................

7.aye[ai] 中文: 赞成n. : yes.

 例 Ten ayes and one nays.10票赞成,1票反对.*省略They are>判断句 *nay[nei]甚至/反对票
.
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8.ago以前<从说话时算起,用于一般过去时>;before<指过去不确定的某一时间点算起>同义句-11

例<>He left school two years ago.他2年前离开了学校.*不用完成时(=have+过分).
 ×He's left school two years ago.*考点:完成时have前有助动词时,可用完成时,如:
 <>That would have been a few mouths ago.那可能是几个月以前的事情。
同义句-10
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Bb[bi:]-->The second letter in the English Alphabet is B. *2nd[`sekэnd] *[`эelfэbit]

1.be about to 中文: 即将. 英文:be going to.

 We are about to start.我们正准备出发. >>动态句[主]>将来时 *考点记住to.

*about[э`baut]大约/关于/周围/调转方向...
...........................................................................

2.but[bΛt] 中文: 除外. 英文:except.

 Everyone wears a uniform but Tom.每个人都穿着制服,但Tom却除外.>动态句/现在时
...........................................................................

3.besides[bi`saidz]中文:除外. 英文:in addition[э`diэn]加 to

 What languages do you speak besides your mother language?
   除了母语外,你还会什么语言
4.but for 中文:要不是. 英文:if it were not for.

But for the safety-belt I wouldn't be alive today.要不是安全带我就活不到今天
...........................................................................

5.be for赞成;be against反对:
<
>Are you for or against the plan?你是赞成还是反对这个计划?

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6.afraid 害怕

<>I'm afraid of fallng into the swimming-poor.
我害怕掉进游泳池里。[I=中心词].
<>
I don't want it to happen to me. *考点:it=of(关于)fallng into the swimming-poor
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Cc[si:]-->The third letter in the English Alphabet is C. *3rd

1.cafeteria[,kэefi`tiэriэ] 中文: 自助餐馆. 英文:a self-service restaurant
2.cannot but=cannot help but 中文:不得不. 英文:to have to

 He cannot but give it up.他不得不放弃它.动态句/将来时 *考点记住it位置.
 I cannot help but do so.我不得不这样做.动态句/将来时 *考点记住but=不. ..........................................................................................

Dd[di:]-->The fourth letter in the English Alphabet is D. *4th

1.dad[dэed] 中文: 爸爸. 英文:father.
2.date[deit] 中文:日期. 英文:a certain[`sэ:tn]确凿的 day.

 Do you know the date of Thanksgiving? 你知道感恩节是几月几号吗?动态句/现在时
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Ee[i:]-->The fifth letter in the English Alphabet is E. *5th

1.eighth[eitθ] 中文: 第8. 英文:next after seventh.
2.eleventh[i`levnθ] 中文: 第11. 英文:next after tenth.

 Tomorrow will be Peter's eleventh birthday.明天是Peter的11岁生日.>/将来时

............................................................................

3.eighteenth[`ei`ti:nθ] 中文: 第18. 英文:next after seventeenth.

 I will meet you on the eighteenth next month.我下月18日和你见面.动态句/将来时

4.equal[`ikwэl]中文:等于. 英文:amount[э`maunt]总数

例 Five 5 times乘 two 2 equals 等于 ten 10.>用母语学习英语!

5.except[ik`sept]中文:除外. 英文:not including[in`klu:diη]包括

 Everyone except me got an invitation[,invi`tei∫эn].除我外,每人都收到了请贴.
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Ff[ef]-->The sixth letter in the English Alphabet is F. *6th

1.first[fэ:st] 中文: 第1. 英文:before any others.

 Tom was first in his class.Tom是全班第1名.描写句/现在时 *first 第一a.

2.fourth[`f ):θ] 中文: 第4. 英文:coming after the third.

 This is her fourth child.这是她的第4个孩子.>判断句/现在时 *考点记住is前后为单数.
..........................................................................

3.fifth[fifθ] 中文: 第5. 英文:coming after the fourth.
 My sister is in the fifth grade.我的妹妹是在5年级.>判断句/现在时 *考点记住in.

4.fourteenth[`f ):`ti:nθ] 中文: 第14. 英文:being 14 in number.
5.fifteenth[`fif`ti:nθ] 中文: 第15. 英文:being 15 in number
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Gg[d3i:]-->The seventh letter in the English Alphabet is G. *7th

1.gain[gein] 中文: 增加. 英文:to get more of something.
2.genius[`d3injэs] 中文: 天赋. 英文:gift.

 He has a genius for music.他有音乐天赋.>占有句/现在时 *考点记住for. ..........................................................................................

Hh[eit∫]-->The eighth letter in the English Alphabet is H. *8th

1.handsome[`hэensэm] 中文: 帅的. 英文:(of men)good-looking
2.habit[`hэebit] 中文: 习惯. 英文: a usual way of doing something.

 Smoking is a bad habit.吸烟是不好的习惯.>判断句/现在时 *考点记住a. .........................................................................................

Ii[ai]-->The ninth letter in the English Alphabet is I. *9th(无e)

1.idea[ai`diэ] 中文: 即将. 英文: a thought.
2.impolite[,impэ`lait]中文: 习惯. 英文: rude[ru:d],not polite.
3.improve[im`pru:v]中文: 进步. 英文: to get better.

 Her English improved after the lesson.她的英文进步是在上课之后.>/过去时
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Jj[d3ei]-->The tenth letter in the English Alphabet is J. *10th

1.job[d3 )b] 中文: 工作. 英文:work.
2.June[d3un]中文: 6月. 英文: the sixth month of the year,after May.

 My cousin[`kΛzэn] decided to get married in Jun.我表妹决定在6月结婚./
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Kk[kei]-->The eleventh letter in the English Alphabet is K. *11th

1.kid[kid] 中文: 小孩. 英文: a young child.
2.key[ki:]中文: 钥匙. 英文: what you open a lock with.

 Is this the key to the room? 这是该房间的钥匙吗?判断句/现在时 *考点记住to. .........................................................................................

Ll[el]-->The twelfth letter in the English Alphabet is L. *12th

1.lake[leik] 中文: 湖. 英文:a big poud[p )nd].
2.lack[lэek]中文:地区.英文:the state状况 of not having something that is need.
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Mm[em]-->The thirteenth letter in the English Alphabet is M. *13th

1.mad[mэed] 中文: 发疯的. 英文:crazy[`kreizi],very angry.

 The teacher is mad at Tom.老师对Tom的行为很生气.描写句/现在时 *记住考点at.

2.major[`meid3э] 中:主修.英:a main subject of study chosen by a college student.

 His major is physics.他的主修科目是物理.判断句/现在时*记住考点physics前面无a/the.

 She majored in music in cllege.她在大学时主修音乐.动态句/过去时 *2处考点in记住.

3.may[mei] 中: 或许. 英: to say that something is possible. ...........................................................................................

Nn[en]-->The fourteenth letter in the English Alphabet is N. *14th

1.ninth[nain] 中文: 第9. 英文:next after eighth.

 September is the ninth of the year.九月是1年的第9个月份.>判断句/现在时

2.nineteenth[`nain`ti:nθ] 中文: 第19. 英文:next after eighteenth.

 It happened in the nineteenth century[`sent∫uri].事情发生在19世纪./

3.not...but 中文: 没有不. 英文:not one of us who does not wish

 There is not one of us but wishes to help you.我们中间没有1个不愿意帮助你。
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Oo[ou]-->The fifteenth letter in the English Alphabet is O. *15th

1.obey[э`bei] 中文: 服从. 英文:to listen to.
2.October[ )k`toubэ]Oct[abbr] 中文:10月.英文:the tenth month of the year.

 Halloween[`lэelou`i:n] is on the last day of October.
   万圣节是在10月份的最后1天.>/
....................................................................

3.Of[ )v,эv] 中文: 关于;-的。 英文:about; -belonging to.

 This is the story of Snow White.这是1个关于白雪公主的故事./
 He is a friend of your son's.他是你儿子的1个朋友.*考点记住:有's不止1个。

 He is a friend of your son.他是你儿子的1个要好朋友.*考点:无's特别友好的1个。
 This is a picture of Tom's.这是Tom照片中的其中1张.*考点记住:有's不止1张。

 This is a picture of Tom.这是Tom的照片.*考点记住:无's特指。
 He is Mary's father.=He is the father of Mary.他是Mary的父亲。
 He is the dog's master.=He is the master of the dog.他是狗的主人。

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Pp[pi:]-->The sixteenth letter in the English Alphabet is P. *16th

1.page[peid3] 中文: 页. 英文:one piece of paper in a book.
2.pair[p] 中文: 1对. 英文:a couple[`kΛpl]双 of

 How many pairs of shoes does she have? 她有几双鞋子.>/现在时 *考点记住s. ............................................................................................

Qq[kju:]-->The seventeenth letter in the English Alphabet is Q. *17th

1.quarter[`kw ):tэ] 中文: 1/4. 英文:one fourth.
2.quiz[kwiz]quizzes 中文: 小考. 英文:a short test.

 I didn't do well on the quit.我这次小考没考好.>动态句/过去时 *考点记住on. ...........................................................................................

Rr[a:]-->The eighteenth letter in the English Alphabet is R. *18th

1.rainy[`reini] 中文: 多雨的. 英文:having a lot of rain.
2.rainy[`reini] 中文: 多雨的. 英文:having a lot of rain.

 Not many people like rainy days.没有多少人喜欢雨天.>/现在时 *考点记住s. ..........................................................................................

Ss[es]-->The nineteenth letter in the English Alphabet is S. *19th

1.second[`sekэnd] 中文: 秒. 英文:1/60th of a minute.

 Ann finished the race in thirty second.安在30秒里跑完全程.>动态句/完成时

2.sixth[siksθ] 中文:第6. 英文:coming after the fifth.

 It's on the sixth floor.它是在2楼.>判断句/现在时 *考点记住on.
...............................................................

3.seventh[`sevnθ] 中文:第7. 英文: next after sixth.

 My office is on the seventh floor.我的办公室在7楼.>/现在时 *考点记住on.

4.sixteenth[sik`sti:nθ] 中文:第16. 英文: next after fifteenth.
5.seventeenth[,sevn`ti:nθ] 中文:第17. 英文: next after sixteenth.
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6.shall[∫эel] 中文:将,必须. 英文: pian to, must.

 I shall take the test tomorrow.我明天将参加考试.>/将来时 *考点记住take.
 Shall we begin now?我们现在就开始好吗?>动态句/将来时 *考点记住now.

 Shall you be free tonight?今天晚上你有空吗?>动态句/将来时 *考点记住be.
 You shall clean this place before you leave.

应该把这儿弄干净,在你离开前.>+>
You shall go.(我要让)你去。
..................................................................................

 You shall have the money as soon as I get it.
我一得到钱,
你就可拿到./+动/
You shall have the money tomorrow.明天给你那笔钱。

 He shall stay in bed.必须躺在床上.>动态句/将来时 *考点记住in.
He shall not go.不能让他去。

 Shall the mailman[`meilmэen] wait?邮差要不要等着?动态句/将来时 *考点记住无for.
 He says he won't go,but I say he shall.他说他不去,但我说他必须去.++
 Intruders[in`tru:dэz] shall be punished[`pΛni∫t].非法闯入者将遭到处罚.

 He shall be punished.他将遭到惩罚.动态句/将来时 *考点记住:be+过去分词=被动。
....................................................................................

7.save短语=说明动作发生的目的:
 for holidays.
 to go on holidays.

I saved my money→|

 in order to go on holidays.
 so that I could go on holidays.
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Tt[ti:]-->The twentieth letter in the English Alphabet is T. *20th

1.the third 中文: 第3. 英文:the one after the second.
 Who's on the third base?谁在3垒?>判断句/现在时 *考点记住on.

2.tenth[tenθ] 中文: 第10. 英文:next after tenth.

 His team came in tenth place.他的球队获得了第10名.>/现在时 *考点记住in.

3.twelfth[twelfθ] 中文: 第12. 英文:next after eleventh.
4.thirteenth[,θэ:`ti:θ] 中文: 第13. 英文:next after twelfth.

The thirteenth student from the left was me.从左边数来第13个学生是我.>/
..............................................................................

5.twentieth[`twentiэθ]中文:21岁生日[口语].英文:a person's 21st birthday.
6.twenty-first[,twenti`fэ:st]中文: 第21. 英文:next after nineteenth.

I got a CD player for my twenty-first.我21岁生日时得到1台激光唱机.>[]

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Uu[ju:]-->The twenty-first letter in the English Alphabet is U. *21st

1.ugly[`Λgli] 中文: 难看的. 英文:not good to look at
.
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Vv[vi:]-->The twenty-second letter in the English Alphabet is V. *22nd[`twenti`sekэnd]

1.very[`veri]中文: 非常. 英文:much
.
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Ww[`dΛblju:]-->The twenty-third letter in the English Alphabet is W. *23rd

1.wake[weik]中文: 叫醒. 英文:to make someone stop sleeping.
2.walk[w ):k]中文: 散步. 英文:a trip on foot.
3.want[w )nt]中文: 想要. 英文:to wish to have
.
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Xx[eks]-->The twenty-fourth letter in the English Alphabet is X. *24th

1.Xmas[`krismэs]n.中文: 圣诞节. 英文:Christmas.
2.Xerox[`ziэr ) ks]n.中文: 复印. 英文:photocopy[`foutэ,k ) pi].
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Yy[wai]-->The twenty-fifth letter in the English Alphabet is Y. *25th

1.yeah[jeэ]ad. 中文:是,对,好地. 英文:yes.

 Yeah,she's coming. 对,她会来。>动态句/将来时 *考点:进行时表将来.

2.year[jiэ]n. 中文:年.英文:365 days,or twelve months,or from January to December.
3.yellow[`jelou]n].中文:黄色.英文:the color of a banana/名词.
       being yellow in color/形容词.

4.yet[`jet].中:已经.英:now. 中:尚.英:so far,up to now,until now.
   中:但.英:but,however.

5.your[`jur].中:你的,你们的. 英:beinging to you.
6.yourself[jur`self].中:你自己. 英:you alone.
7.yourselves[jur`selvz].中:你们自己. 英:your own.
8.youth[juθ].中:年轻人. 英:a young person.

9.yummy[`jΛmi].中:好吃的。 英:very delicious.
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Zz[zed][zi:]-->The twenty-sixth letter in the English Alphabet is Z. *26th

1.zero[`ziэrou]n.a.中文: 零. 英文:the number for nothing/名词. none/形容词.

 Her chances are zero.她的机会是零.>判断句/现在时 *考点记住are.

2.zoo[zu:]n.中文: 动物园. 英文:a place where wild[waild] animals are kept.

 Children enjoy[in`d3 )i] going to the zoo.儿童们喜欢去动物园.>动态句/现在时

3.zeal[z:l]n. 中文: 热心. 英文:keennes[`ki:nns].全体加载中...

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这里是---3种构词法总结:

英语词汇主要依靠构词法扩充丰富。英语构词法主要有三种:派生法\合成法\转换法。

1.派生法

在一个单词或词根之前或之后加上一个词缀,变成一个新词,这种构词法叫词缀法。
加在单词或词根前面的词缀叫前缀。前缀具有一定含义,它可以改变、限制或加强词的意义。

常用词缀如下:
.........................................................................................

前缀

含义

词例

non-

非、未

nonstop(不停的),nonage(未成年)

un-

不、取消

unhappy(不快乐的),unable(不能的),unlock(开锁)

dis-

dishonest(不诚实的),disappear(消失)

mis-

错误

mistake(错误),mislead(领错)

super-

超……

supermarket(超市),superman(超人)

inter-

在……之前

internation (国际)

im-

进入

import(输入),impost(进口税)

ex-

出外

export(输出),exist(出口)

kilo-

kilometer(千米),kilogram(公斤)

fore-

在前

foreword(前言),foreknow(预知)

pre-

在前

preschool(学前的),prepay(预付)

post-

在后

postwar(战后)

re-

重新

rewrite(重写),reborn(新生的)

vice-

vice-chairman(副主席),vice-president(副总统)

en-

使成为

enrich(使……富裕),enlarge(扩大)

加在单词或词根后面的词缀叫后缀。它主要起转变词类的作用。
.......................................................................................

常用后缀如下:名词后缀

后缀

含义

词例

-er

teacher(教师),speaker(发言人)

-or

人员

actor(演员),visitor(参观者)

-ist

者、家

artist(艺术家),typist(打字员)

-ism

主义

socialism(社会主义)

-hood

时代、状态

childhood(童年),manhood(成年)

-ness

性质、状态

kindness(亲切),happiness(幸福)

-ship

身份

membership(会员资格)

-ment

行为、状态

movement(运动)

-ty

性质、状态

beauty(美丽),difficulty(困难)

-tion

动作

collection(收集),action(行动)


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形容词后缀

后缀

含义

词例

-ful

充满

hopeful(有希望的),useful(有用的)

-ous

有……的

famous(有名的),dangerous(危险的)

-y

有……性质的

cloudy(多云的),

windy(有风的)

-al

……的

historical(历史),natural(自然的)

-ese

语言、国籍

Chinese(中国的、汉语),Japanese(日本的、日语)

-ish

语言、国籍

English(英语、英国的)

-less

无……的

useless(无用的),careless(无意的)

-ive

倾向

active(活泼的)


副词后缀

后缀

含义

词例

-ly

……地

quickly(快地),smilingly(笑嘻嘻地)

-ward(s)

朝……方向

upwards(向上),southward(s)(朝南)

-ly

……化

beautify(美化),simplify(简单地)

-ize

……化

modernize(现代化),popularize(大众化)

-en

使成

widen(加宽),quicken(加快)

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2.合成法

由两个或两个以上的词合成一个新词,这种构词法叫合成法。
合成词的含义大多可以从字面看出。它的写法由习惯确定,
有的写在一起,有的用连字号连接,有的分开些。
例如:afternoon下午、anybody任何人、background背景、ballpoint圆珠笔、
basketball篮球、bathroom浴室、bedclothes铺盖、best-seller畅销书、
birthday生日、blackboard黑板、bookmark书签、brotherhood兄弟般的、
chairman主席、classmate同班同学、cold-blooded冷血的、Englishspeaking
说英语的、family name姓氏、waiting room 候车室。
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3.转换法

一个单词由一种词类转化为另一种词类,这种构词法叫转化法。
转化后的词义往往与转化前的词义有密切联系。例如:
water n.水→water v.浇水

sit v.坐→seat n.座位

full adj.满的→fill v.装满

hot adj.热的→heat n.热量

die v.死→ dead adj.死的

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这里是---常见词汇要点1:

1.a用于以辅音音素开头的单词前,an用于以元音音素开头的单词前 如

a useful machine一种有用的机器,a university一所大学,an honest man一位老实人,
an“S”一个(字母)“S”,an 80 – metre - long bridge一座80米长的桥等。
afraid前可加very,但可加very much或much。
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2.介词but后跟动词时,如果前面有动词do,则but后用不带to的不定式;

如果前面没有do,则but后用带to的不定式。
试比较:I could do nothing but wait.除了等,我毫无办法。
They had no choice but to fight.他们别无选择,只有战斗。

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3.I am a Chinese.是不地道的英语,正确的说法是:I am Chinese (或I am

a Chinese man.)同样:He is an Englishman.也是不对的,应说:He is English.
(或He is an Englishman.)再如:He is a French teacher.他是位法国老师。
He is an Italian singer.他是位意大利歌唱家。

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4.else作形容词时,通常放在疑问词或any-,some-,no-加-thing,
-body,-one构成的复合词之后.如 I want something else.我想要点别的东西。

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5.①enough作形容词时,可放在它所修饰的名词之前或之后。如:We have

enough money. Enough作副词用时,应放在它所修饰的形容词、副词或动词之后。
He runs quickly enough.他跑十分快。Have you slept enough? 你睡够了吗?
②enough后常接for+n. (pron.)+to do 结构,不用从句结构。如:
It’s late enough for us to stop work.时间够晚了,我们收工吧。
(不可说It’s late enough that we can stop work.)

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6关于楼层的说法,英美习惯不同。
在英国,1楼叫the ground floor,2楼叫the first floor;
在美国,1楼叫the first floor,2楼叫the second floor,依此类推。

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7.指许多条鱼且不分种类时,仍用fish(单复数形式相同);fishes指许多种类的鱼。
fish用作“鱼肉”解时,前面不带冠词。如:
I like fish better than meat.我喜欢吃鱼胜过吃肉。

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8.forget后跟动名词意思是“忘记已做过的事或已发生的事”;forget后跟不定式是
“忘记要做的事(还未做)”。
试比较:I forgot telling her about it.我忘记了曾把这事告诉过她。
I forgot to tell her about it .我忘记告诉她这件事了。

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9.in front of是指在某物的前面。如:in front of the hall在大厅的前面(大门外);
in the front of是指在某物本身的前面部分。
如:in the front of the hall在大厅的前头(前几排位置)。

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10.had better在口语中常用其缩写格式’d better 其否定式一般在had better后加not,
构成“had better not do sth.”结构,其疑问式把had提前即可。had better属情态动词,
没有人称和数的变化。

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11.① have作“有”解时,其否定和疑问形式有两种。 如:
I have not a sister.或 I don’t have a sister.我没有姐妹。
Has she any friends? 或 Does she have any friends?她有朋友吗?

② have作实义动词用,不可缩略为I’ve,she’s,we’ve等;
③have和名词间如无别的词时,其否定形式常用no,不用have not;
有被的词时才用have not,不用no。如:He has no beard.他没有胡须。
I haven’t got any money.我没有钱。

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12.help后跟不定式或带不定式的复合宾语时,不定式可带to,也可以不带to,
美国人不加to的情况更多些。

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13.①hope一般不用进行时态;

②在否定句中,否定词一般不与hope连用。如可说:
I hope she won’t come.我希望她不来。不可说:I don’t hope she’ll come.
但是在简短的答语中,not可以与hope连用。如:—Do you thin Andrew will fail?
—I hope not.—你觉得安德鲁会来吗?—我希望他不会。

③hope的宾语一般为不定式或从句,它后面不能接复合宾语结构。如不能说:
We hope him to come.而应说:We hope he will come .我们希望他会来。

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14.hospital与school,work,bed,prison等词一样,常不用冠词,表达抽象意义,
不表示具体的场所。如:
go to hospital(bed,school,work)去医院看病(上床睡觉、去上学、去上班)/
in bed(hospital,prison)在床上躺着(住院治疗、上学、蹲监狱)等。

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15.表示时间时,just和just now的主要用法区别在于:一般情况下just用于“完成时”,
而just now一般用于“过去时”。just用于过去时,含义为“刚才”。如
He was just here.他刚才还在这儿。just now作“此刻,现在,马上”讲时,也可用于
“现在时”。如:He is not at home just now.他现在不在家。
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16.keep doing sth.和keep on doing sth.含义基本相同,都指“继续做某事”
(=continue/go on doing sth.),但后者更多地强调重复性和决心。Keep和keep on后面
的动名词(不可用不定式)必须是表示动作的动名词。如 working,walking,writing,
talking等,一般情况不接standing,sitting,lying,sleeping等相对静止状态的动名词。

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17.know后面如果需接不定式作宾语,要用带疑问词的不定式短语(不能直接跟不定式),
这个疑问词的不定式短语相当于一个以该词引导的宾语从句。如:
I donn't know what to do.(=I don't know what I should do.)我不知道怎么办才好。

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18.learn的过去式和过去分词,在美国英语中常用learned,但在英国英语中learnt和
learned一样常用,但过去分词则常用learnt,
以避免与形容词learned/︱ l ?:nid/(有学问的)混淆。
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19. little有否定的意思,a little有肯定的意思。如:
I have little money .我几乎没有钱了。 I have a little money.我有一点钱。

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2o.be made of意为'用……制造',指原料制成成品时无质的变化,成品仍看得出原材料。
如:The table is made of wood.这张桌子是用木头做的。be made from意为'由...制造',
指已发生质的变化,成品已看不出原材料。如:
Nylon is made from air, coal and water.尼龙是由空气、煤和水加工制成的。

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21.Must I(we)…?的否定回答是No,you needn’t.如 —Must I stay here?
—No, you needn't.—我必须留在这儿吗?—不,你不必。

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22.never的语气往往比not 重,用never表示否定时,不需要助动词do。如:
I did not write to him at all. 我根本没有给他写过信。
I never wrote to him. 我从不给他写信。

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23.修饰 nothing,something,anything 等词的形容词,应放在这些词的后面。如:
nothing interesting, something good 等。

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24.以-ics结尾的表示学科的名词,如:physics, politics 等一般看成单数名词。
如:Physics is taught in all middle schools.所有中学都开设物理课。

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25. plenty of 只用于肯定句中,在疑问句和否定句中要用 enough。如:
We have plenty of food.我们有足够的食物。
Have you enough food?你们有充足的食物吗?

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26.Stop 后接动词作宾语是“停止做谋事”的意思。如:
The baby stopped crying.婴儿不哭了。Stop后接动词不定式,是'停止一事,
而去做另一件事'的意思,to do 作目的状语。如:
He stopped to have a rest. 他停下来,休息一会儿。

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27.always 意为“一直,总是”,频度最高,表示动作和状态重复进行,中间没有间断,
有时可与all the time“一直,始终”互换,但all the time 不表示“频度”,而表
示某一特定阶段由开始一直到结束。例如:
The monkeys are running and jumping all the time.
The monkeys are always running and jumping.那些猴子一直都在蹦蹦跳跳。

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28、the 在元音音素前读作/i/;在辅音音素前读作/ ?/,强调时读作/i:/。
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29、work表示“著作”时可以用单数a work,也可以用复数works,但常用复数;表示
“工事”、“工程”时用works,是复数名词;works作“工厂”讲,单复数同形,可以
说a works,也可以说many works。

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30、play表示“演奏乐器”时,乐器名称前须加定冠词;而当表示“球类活动”时,球
类名称之前不加冠词。

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31、in town(在城里)和out of town(在城外)均为固定词组,town前不可加冠词。

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32、序数词前加the表示顺序,而序数词前加不定冠词则表示“再一;又一”的含义。
如:The Whites are watching TV.怀特一家在看电视。

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33. usually 意为“通常”,表示习惯动作,频度仅次于always。例如:
My sister usually goes to school at 7:10. 我姐姐通常在7:10去上学。
What do they usually do on Mondays? 他们星期一通常干什么?

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34、China’s 是China’s的所有格形式,指从属关系或所有关系,强调所有权;
Chinese为形容词,表示属性或性质,有“与中国有关的”、“中国式的”的意思。如:
Not every Chinese student knows that China’s population is over 1,300,000,000.
并不是每个中国学生都知道中国的人口超过13亿。

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35、welcome是一个兼类词,可作动词、形容词、名词和感叹词用,注意welcome不能带
含不定式的复合结构,不能说 Welcome you to come to our school.或 Welcome you
to Beijing Hotel.或 We welcome foreign friends to visit China等。应说成:
You're welcome to come to our school.欢迎到我们学校.Welcome to Beijing Hotel.
欢迎到北京宾馆。Welcome to China.欢迎到中国。

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36、prefer的意思是:优先选择,比较喜欢,更喜欢,更为愿意,可采用“prefer to do
(常指特定的或具体的某项行动)'或'prefer+名词(动名词)+to(介词)+名词(动名词)'
等句型。如:I prefer to wait until he comes back.我愿意等到他回来。
I prefer English to Japanese.我喜欢英语胜过日语。

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37、pound(英镑)和dollar(美元)的复数形式均在词尾加—s;而我国的yuan(元),
jiao(角),fen(分),jin(斤),li(里)等在英语中单复数同形。如:

two pounds,three yuan ,twenty li等。“¥”是人民币(RMB)的符号,“£”代表
“英镑”,“S”或“$”代表美国、加拿大,新西兰等国家的货币单位“元”,它们
均放在钱数的前面.如:¥12.50(12元5角)/£8.25(8英镑25便士)/$3.40(3美元40美分)

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38、某些动词的 -ing 形式和-ed形式可用作形容词,但两种形式含义不同,-ing形式表示
“令人……”的意思,修饰的是某物或某事;—ed形式表示“受(使、被)……”的含义,
修饰的是人,如:interesting/interested;surprising/surprised。有时-ing形式表示动
作进行中的状态,而—ed形式表示动作已完成的状态。如:the more developed countries
较发达的国家/the developed countries 发达国家/the developing countries发展中国家。

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39、room和space均可指“空间、地方”,但当这一含义讲时两者是不可数名词。如:
The big desk takes up too much room/space.这张大桌子太占地方了。

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40、thank to是个短语,to是介词,意为“多亏了……,由于……的帮助“。如:
Thank to the English language ,we can learn a lot from the Internet.
由于英语这门语言的帮助,我们能够从因特网上学到很多东西。

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41、population作“人口”解时,是集体名词,一般不加—s,谓语动词用单数。
说某地的人口时习惯上讲…has a population of(数量)(有……人口),修
饰population的形容词不可用many,而用large和small,如:Has a large/
small population;提问人口时用what。如:
What’s the population of shanghai?另外,如果指一整体人口的部分,谓语
动词则用复数。如
Three quarters of the population of our city are business people.
我们城市四分之三的人口经商。

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42、during the last/past three hundred years意为“在近300年来”或“在过去/
最近300年期间”,during也可换成in或over,last或past(后有a时要省去)。如:
In the last few days she has been in hospital and hasn’t got well yet.近
几天来他一直生病住院,至今尚未康复。

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43、next week指以现在为起点的“下周”,与一般将来时连用,而the next week或
the following week是以过去某一时间点为起点的“下一周”,与一般过去时或过去
将来时连用。

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44 at night和in the night均可表示“在夜里”,at night用于表示天黑以后习惯发
生的事,强调是“在夜里”,而不是白天;in the night则表示“在深夜”。
on the night特指“在(某个)晚上”,night前或常有表示日期或星期的词;
on a…night意为“在一个……晚上”,night前加定语。如
He went out on the night of May 18.他在5月18日晚出去过。
He went out on Saturday night.他周六晚上出去了。
He went out on a cold night.他在一个很冷的晚上出去了。

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45、almost常与never,no,none,nothing,nobody,every,everything和everybody
连用,当almost修饰no时相当于hardly any。如:He has done almost nothing
(hardly anything) today.他今天几乎什么都没有做。另外,almost有时可修饰名词、
形容词或动词,表示“差一点”。如:
Before this match we were almost top of the league.
这场比赛前,我们差一点就是联赛冠军了。
I almost think you are right.我差一点相信你是正确的。

46、hardly意为“几乎不”(almost not),含有否定意义,
含有hardly的陈述句,其附加问句用肯定形式。

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这里是--常见动词短语A

agree with 同意,赞成(某人的意见)

arrive at 到达,抵达(小地方)

ask about 询问

ask for 要求,邀请

ask sb. to do sth. 请(要求)某人做某事

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B.常见动词短语

be covered with 覆盖着

be filled with 充满,装满

be interested in 对……感兴趣

be worried about 对……感到担心(忧虑)

be used for 被用作……

break down 坏掉,出故障,抛锚
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C.常见动词短语

call one’s names 点名,骂人

can do nothing to 对……毫无办法,不能……

catch a bus(train) 赶公共汽车(火车)

catch a cold 患感冒

catch up with 赶上,追上

change one’s mind 改变主意,变心

climb up 攀登,爬上

come in(into) 进入

come out 出来,(花)开

come over 过来

come together 集合,聚会

come up 上来,走近

come along 走吧,过来;快点,赶快

come from 来自……,起源于……

come with 跟(某人)一起来

come on 快点,加油

come round 过来,绕过

come through 通过

copy one’s example 效仿,以……为榜样

cover…with 用……覆盖……

cut down 砍倒……

cut into 切割成……
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D.常见动词短语

do problems 解决问题,解(数学)题

do with 对待,对付,处理,处置

do sport 运动;(体育)活动

do the shopping (在商店)购物

do the cooking 烹调,烹饪

do the washing 洗衣服

do one’s homework 做家务

do well in 在……方面做得好

dress up 穿衣,打扮(加in才相当于及物动词)
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E.常见动词短语

enjoy oneself 玩得高兴,过得愉快
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F.常见动词短语

fall off (从……)跌落

fall over 向前摔倒

fall asleep 睡着,入睡

fall behind 落后,落在……后面

fall down 落下,倒下

fill with 用……装满……

feel well(better) 感觉良好

feel lonely 觉得寂寞

find out 查明,发现,了解
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G.常见动词短语

get back 回来,返回,取回,要回

get dressed 穿衣

get into 进入

get on 上车(船、飞机等)

get on with 与某人相处

get out of 从……里出来

get to 达到

go down 下来,降落

go for a swim 去游泳

go for a walk 去散步

go on 继续,持续

go to work 去上班

get down 下来,降落

get up 起床,起身,站起来

give back 归还,送回

go shopping 去(商店)购物

go to bed 去睡觉,上床,就寝

get lost 迷路,失踪

get to sleep 入睡

get well 康复

give a talk 作报告

give…a test 对……进行测试(试验)

give one’s best wishes 衷心祝愿;致意

give sb. a call 给某人打电话

give sb. a ring 给某人打电话

go home 回家

go into 进入

go over 动身前往检查;复习

go round 绕过,环绕

go skating 去滑冰

go swimming 去游泳

go to class 去上课

go to bed 睡觉

go to school 去上学

go to sleep 入睡;睡着

go up 上升,爬上

go well 进展顺利

grow up 长大,成人
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H.常见动词短语

hands up 请举手,举起手来

have a baby 生产,分娩

have a cough 咳嗽

have a drink(of) 喝酒,喝饮料,饮用

have a fight with 与……战斗(打架)

have a good journey 旅途快乐,一路顺风

have a good time 玩得高兴,过得愉快

have a headache 患头痛

have a look at 看一看

have a pain/ pains in 看……部位痛

have a rest 休息

have a test 做试验,测试

have a walk 散步

have a wash 洗脸,洗澡

have been to 到过,去过

have breakfast吃早餐

have gone 消失,不复存在

have got(= have) 有

have got a moment 有空,有时间

have no idea 不知道

have one’s medicine 吃药

have to 必须,不得不

hear from 得到……的消息,收到……的来信

hear of 听某人谈起……,听说有关……的消息

help sb. (to) do sth. 帮助某人做某事

help yourself(to) 请自己动手(拿或吃)请自便,随便吃……

hold a sports meeting 举行运动会

hold on 请稍等,别挂断电话

hurry off 匆忙离开

hurry up 匆忙,赶紧

hurt oneself 受伤,伤了自己

J.常见动词短语

join together 连接,结合

jump the queue 不按顺序,插队
....................................................................................

K.常见动词短语

keep healthy 保持健康

keep together 集中在一起,不要走散

keep away from… 让……离开

knock at 敲(门等),叩
.....................................................................................

L.常见动词短语

laugh at 嘲笑

learn about 了解

learn by oneself 自学

learn from 从……中学到,向……学习

leave sb. by oneself 把某人单独留下

leave school 离校,毕业,辍学

leave a message 留言,留话

listen to 听……

look after 照看,照料,照顾

look around 环视,四周环顾

look at 看,注视

look for 找,寻找

look in(into) 向……里面看

look like 看起来像

look out of 从……里向外看

look over 检查,过目

look round 环视,到处寻找

look up 查阅
...................................................................................

M.常见动词短语

make a dialogue 进行对话

make a mistake 犯错误

make a noise 发出噪音,吵闹

make a telephone call 打电话

make faces 做鬼脸

make friends with 与……交朋友

make it (及时)到来,成功,做到

make problems 造成问题,引起问题

make sentences 造句

make sure 确保,保证,务必

make tea 泡茶,沏茶

make up 编造,杜撰

move away 移开,搬开

move to 搬家至某地

move on 动身、出发,继续前进
....................................................................................

P.常见动词短语

pass on 传递

pass on to 把……传递给……

pass through 通过,经过

pay for 支付

pick up 拾起,捡起

play a game 做游戏

play a joke on 跟……开玩笑

play against 和……踢球(比赛)

play together 一起玩;踢球时互相配合

play with 和……一起玩,玩弄,逗弄

point at 指向

point to 指向(远处的事物)

pull out of 把……从……拉出来

pull up from 把……从……拉上来

prefer to 较喜欢,宁愿

push down hard 压实,踩实

put away 扔掉;把……放回原处

put on 穿上、戴上,贴起来

put one’s hand up 举手
....................................................................................

R.常见动词短语

return from 从……归来

ride(on) a bike 骑单车

ring up 打电话
....................................................................................

S.常见动词短语

say to onself 自言自语

see a film 看电影

see a (the) doctor 看医生,就医,就诊

see you later 回头见,再见

sell out 售完,卖完

send for 派人去请

sit down 坐下

speak to 和(对)……说话(交谈)

spend on 在……花(钱,时间等)

stand in a line 站队,排队

stand up 起身,起立

stop from 组织……使不致……

stop to do sth. 停下来(开始)做某事
...................................................................................

T.常见动词短语

take a message 带口信,捎口信

take walk 散步

take away 带走,拿走

take back 带回,送回

take care of 当心,注意,提防;照料,照看

take medicine 吃药,服药

take off 脱下,脱去;(飞机、火箭等)起飞

take one’s temperature 测量某人体温

take one’s time 别急,慢慢来

take out 拿出,掏出,带出

take sth. out 把……从……里面拿出来

take sth. with sb. 随身携带

take time 花费时间,占用时间

take turns 轮流

talk about 谈话,说话,讨论

talk to 说话,谈话,讨论

teach oneself 自学

tell a lie 说谎,撒谎

tell sb. about sth. 告诉某人有关某事

thanks to 幸亏,多亏,由于

think about 考虑,思考

try on 试穿

try out 试验,试用

try to do sth. 设法做某事

turn on 打开(自来水、收音机、电视机等)

turn off 关掉

turn round 转身,转过脸
...................................................................................

W.常见动词短语

wait for 等候,等待

wait in a queue 排队等候

wake up 醒来,唤醒

wan a go 想试一试

wear out 穿坏,穿旧

write down 写下,记下

write to 给……写

..............................................................................

这里是---常见词汇要点2:

J75as well是副词短语,与too和also意义相同。
J75as well as是介词短语,与'in addition to'同义。
J76(2)There's someone at the front door:I heard the bell ring.
前门有人,我听到门铃响了。
J77The concert starts at 7.30 on Saturday evening.音乐会在星期六晚7点30分开始。
J77at that time we lived in Lagos.那时候,我们住在拉各斯。
J77At night,the noise of traffic kept us awake.夜间,交通车辆声使我们没法入睡。
J77Nowadays most people retire at the age of 60.现在,多数人60岁才退休。
................................................................................

J78经常指令人不快的事。
J78并不表示已经触及目标。
You can shoot at the lion,but you probably won't hit him!
你可以瞄准狮子,但却很可能打不中它!
J79She will come She /will not /won't/ come.她愿来 她不愿来。
J79She will come Will she come?她愿来 她愿来吗?
J80'Will she come tonight?''No,she can't' “她今晚会来吗?”“不会的,她不能来。”
J80'I've never been to China.Have you?'“我没去过中国。你去过吗?”
J80I love her. I don't love her. Does she love you? Yes,she does.
我爱她。 我不爱她。 她爱你吗? 是的,她爱我。
J80Keep away!This animal is dangerous.站远点!这只动物会伤人的。
J80I live thirty miles away.我住在30哩外。
J81The dog was afraid ,and ran away.狗害怕,跑开了。
J81Please go away,I'm busy.请走开,我很忙。

J81He kicked the ball towards the goalkeeper,
who fortunately headed it away from the goal.
他将球向守门员踢去,守门员幸运地用头将球顶出了球门。
J81The bad weather stopped our football game.天气太糟,我们的足球赛没法举行。
J81Smoking is bad for your health.吸烟有损健康。
J81'How was the game?''Not bad.'“比赛怎样?”“还不错。”
J81The weather this winter is worse than it was last year.
今年冬天的天气比去年冬天的差。
J82Sugar is the worst food for your teeth.糖对牙齿最有害。
J82I'm bad at tennis.I always lose.我网球打不好,总是输。
J82I play football very badly,but I play tennis quite well.
我足球踢得相当糟,但我网球打得还可以。
J82In times of trouble,old people often suffer(the)worst.
在灾乱时期,受苦最多的常是老年人。
J82The child looks ill.这个孩子看上去好象生病了。
J82The future looks bad.前景看上去很暗淡。
J82James is feeling /well/ill/ after his operation.詹姆士手术后感觉良好(不好)。
J82我们不能说:He is feeling bsdly.
................................................................................

J82Some of the sol diers were badly injured.有些战士伤得很重。
J82This car is so dirty: it badly needs a wash.这部车太脏了,很需要洗一洗。
J84I will be here at ten.我10点钟回。
J84Please be quick.(祈使句)请快点。
J84God be with you.(虚拟语气)愿上帝与你同在。
J84I am ready to help you now.我现在可以帮你。
J84It is late .She is ready,but he is not.天很晚了,她准备好了,但他还没有。
J84You are ready,they are ready,and we are too.
 你准备好了,他们准备好了,我们也准备好了。
J84It was late.I was asleep,but Ann was still up.天太晚了,我睡着了,但安妮还没睡。
J84We were ready before they were.But where were you?我们比他们早准备好,但是你在哪儿?
J84The road is being widened.路正在加宽。
J84Where have you been?I've been looking for you.你到哪儿去了?我一直在找你。
................................................................................

J84举例说明:
I'm sorry I'm late.对不起,我来晚了。
J84Thanks,you're very kind.谢谢,你人真好。
J84They're changing the law.他们正在修改法律。
J84Where's Dan?He's in bed.丹在哪里?他睡觉了。
J85 She's writing a letter. 她正在写信。
J85 Look—it's, snowing. 看—下雪了。
................................................................................
J85 缩写形式不能用于分句或句子的尾部。
J85 例;I'm older than she is. not: I'm older than. 我比她大。
J85 ’s缩写形式可用在许多不同的主语后。
J85 例:That's my umbrella.那是我的雨伞。
J85 There' s the bus. 车来了。
J85 the school's closed. 学校关门了。
................................................................................

J85 举例说明:
J85 this pen isn't mine. 这支笔不是我的。
J85 Aren't you coming? 你不准备来吗?
J85 Jim wasn't at gome. 吉姆不在家。
J85 We weren't noticed. 没人注意我们。
................................................................................

J85 注:在非正式的会话中,aren't 可用作am not在问1句中的缩写式,特别是在英国。
J85 例;Aren't I lucky? 我不幸运吗?
J85 I'm hungry.(后跟形容词) 我很饿。
J85 my son is eighteen. (后跟形容词)我儿子18岁了。
J85 Mrs king has been a good friend. (后跟名词短语)金太太是一位好朋友。
................................................................................

J86 当句子是由it 和 there引导时,句中的be也是主要动词。
J86 It's Oscar that she likes best.她最喜欢的是奥斯卡。
J86 There's someone at the door.有人在敲门。
J86 Mr. Jiyce is waiting. 乔伊斯先生在等着。
J86 My sister's stydying physics.我姐姐在学物理。
j86 They will be leaving tomorrow.他们将于明天离开。
J86 The house is surrounded by trees.这幢房子树木环绕。
J86 Two apples have been eaten.已经吃掉了两只苹果。
J86 He's considered a great man.他被公认为是个伟大的人物。
................................................................................

J86 be to
J86 be able to
J86 be about to
J86 be bound to
J86 (be)going to
J86 be sure to
J87 because 和because of说明句中主要部分的理由。
................................................................................

J87 例:We couldn't pkay tennis because of the rain.我们不能打网球,因为正下雨。
J87 例:We couldn't play tennis because of the rain. 由于下雨,我们不能打网球。
J87 Before you become a doctor, you have to study for six years in amedical school.
J87 在成为医生以前,你不得不在医学院学习6年。
J87 Ruth and her new neighbour soon became friends.
J87 露丝和她的新邻居不久就成为了好朋友。
J88 Why don't you sit /beside/next to / me? 你为啥不坐在我旁边呢?
J88 Lord and lady Mildew stood beside one another as they shook hands with the guests.
J88 米尔迪勋爵和夫人依次站着,与客人们一一握手。
....................................................................................
J88 besides作介词,意为“另外还有”、“除、、、外”。
J88 例:Besides the captain and the crew, there where fifty passengers on the shiip.
J89 除船长和船只外,船上还有50名乖客。
J89 Olga is a wonderful woman: besides writing books,
she runs a farm and looks after her six chilkren.
J89 奥尔加是个了不起的女人:除了著书以外,她还经营一家农场。
................................................................................

J89 在口语中,besides可用于句首作连接副词,
意为“此外”、“无论如何”,用来补充新的理由。
J89 例:Moiy didn't wsnt to go out for a walk.
The weather was wer and miserable.Besides ,she had a headache.
J89 莫亚不想出去散步。天气很糟,下着雨,她又头痛。
J89 The river flows between two mountains.这条河从两座山间流过。
J90 注: between 偶尔用作副词(亦作in between)
J90 例: Tall cliffs rose on both sides,with a narrow stretch of water (in)between.
J90 两边悬崖矗立,一条小溪从中间流过。
J91 有些人认为将between 用于两个以上的人或事物是不对的。所以他们会说;
J91 The King divided his kingdom between his two children.
 国王将他的王国分给了他的两个儿子。
J91 但是:The King divided his kingdom among his three children.
J91 国王将他的王国分给了他的三个儿子。
................................................................................

J91 当谈及一组的成员时,among的所指不太具体。
J91 例:When you are among friends,you can say what you like.
 在朋友之间,你想说啥就可以说啥.
J91 amongst 与among同义,主要见于英国英语,但极少用。
J91 The nearest town is beyond those mountains.距离最近的城镇在山那边。
...............................................................................
J91 beyond也有比喻用法。
J91 This poetry is very diff icult: it is quite beyond me.
 (='I can't under. stand it.')这首诗很难,我读不懂。

副词(少见)。
J91 例:The house has a beautiful view
 ---with the fields and trees in front, and the sea beyond.
 这座房子景色优美;前面是田野和树林,再往前看就是大海。
J92 Pleasee can I borrow your ladder?我能借你的梯子吗?

J93 我们也可以将 both后的the省略。
J93 It will be a good match. Both
J93 /players/sides/ have been playing well recently.
J93 这是一场精彩的比赛,两 /位选手/方/ 最近一直都打得很出色。
J93 Ann and Jim have similar tastes.For example,
they both like music,poetry,and sport.
J93 安妮与吉姆爱好相似,比如说;他们都喜欢音乐、诗歌和体育运动。
J94 I'd like to invite you both to dinner next Saturday.
我想请你们二位下星期六共进晚餐。
.................................................................................
J94 both可用于中间位置
J94 His father and mother were both excellent cooks.他父母两人都做得一手好菜。
J94 The teams have both scored one goal.两个队都进了一球。
J94 中间位置是指both应用在助动词或作主要动词的BE后、在其它主要动词前。
J94 作为代词,both可单独使用,如果上下文意义 清楚,可将of 短语省略。
J94 This dress is cheaper, but that one is more attractive. I think I'll buy both.
J94 (=.'both of them')
J94 这件衣服便宜,那件更漂亮。我想两件都买下。
J95 When Uncle Bill visits us at Christmas.he always brings us presents from the family.
J95 当比尔大叔圣诞节来看我们时,他总是从家里带些礼物来给我们。
J95 When Mrs White visits her husband in hospital,
she always takes him some fresh fruit.
J95 当怀特太太到医院去看她丈夫时,她总是给他带些新鲜水果。
J96 but可以连接两个分句,但有时可将第二分句的第一部分省略。
................................................................................

J96 例:I like Paul, but (I) dislike his opinions.
我喜欢保罗,但(我)不喜欢他的一些看法。
J96 The house is old, but (it is) very comfortable.这座房子是旧了点,但却很舒服。
J96 I have been to Florence,but not to Rome.我去过佛罗伦萨,但没去过罗马。
J96 I enjoy reading novels, but not history books.我喜欢看小说,但不喜欢看历史书。
J96 The government is increasing its chances of success,
 but also(in-creasing)its chances of failure.
 政府正在提高其成功的机会,但同时也在提高它失败的可能性。
................................................................................

J97 注:(i) but有时用来连接两个位于名词前的形容词,表示对比。
J97 例:He gave away all his money, It was a generous but foolish thing to do .
J97 他捐了所有的钱,这一举动既大方但又愚蠢。
.................................................................................
J97 (ii) but作动词,意为“除了......外”。
J97 例 We've looked everywhere but in the kitchen.除了厨房外,其它地方我们都找过了。
J97 Eat snails ? I'll do anything but that !吃蜗牛?吃啥都可以,我就是不吃蜗牛!

J97 (iii)but作副词,很少使用。副词but 意为“只”、“仅仅”。
J97 例:She was but a baby when she first appeared on the stage.
J97 第一次上舞台时,她还仅仅是个孩子。
J97 We can but try.('Things are not hopeless.')我们只有试试。(事情还不是完全无望.)
J97 You can't but admire him.('You cannot help it.')
你不得不崇拜他.(你禁不住会崇拜他.)
................................................................................

J98 by意为“从......旁经过”。
J98 We drove by your house.我们驱车从你家门口经过。
J98 The bus was going by the supermarket as I came out.
我出来时,汽车正从超市门前驶过。
J98 by用作副词也具有“从......旁经过”的意义,通常用于动词后,但不能在名词短语前。
J98 Thousands of people were lining the street,
hoping to see the royal visitors go by.
J98 成千上万的人站在街道两旁,希望看到皇室佳宾经过。
................................................................................
J98 by用作介词,表示方法。
J98 例:The thief must have left the building by the back door.
J98 (='through', 'by way of ')小偷一定是从后门离开大楼的。
J98 You start the car by turning this key.旋转这把钥匙,车子就启动了。
J98 This coal is mined by a totally new method.
J98 这批煤是用一种完全新的方法开采出来的。
J100 This city was built by the Turks.('The Turks built this city.')
J100 这座城市是由土耳其人建立的。
J100 The letter should be signed by the president. 这封信应由总统签发。
................................................................................

J100 by作时间介词意为"在......"或"在......之前"。
J100 例:The photographs will be ready by Friday.(='on or before Friday')
 照片到星期五就已洗好了。
J100 Please deliver the new motorcycle by next week.('next week or before')
 请在下周前将这辆新摩托车送到客户手里。
J100 By the end of the second year,
 the students have learned most of the basic grammar.
 到第二年底,学生们基本上学完了基础语法。
J100 By the end of the third year,
 the students are using English quite well in conversation.
 到第三年底,学生们英语口语就相当不错了。
J102 We can't finish the job this week,but we will be able to finish it next week.
J102 这一周我们不能完成这顶工作,但会在下周完成的。
...............................................................................
J102 can=ability 表示能力
J102 can意为 (a)“(体力上)能够”
J102 I can climb that mountain in five hours.我能在5小时内登上那座山。
J102 Tim can't spell very well yet. 蒂姆到现在连拼写都还不怎么太会。
J103 can 意为“可能”。
J103 The weather can be very hot in Delhi.(i.e 'Very hot weather is possible....')
J103 德里的天气有时会很热。
J103 If it rains, we can hold the party indoors.
J103 (i.e 'it will be possible for us to hold the party indoors.')
J103 如果下雨,我们就在室内开舞会。
................................................................................

J103 can't意为“不可能”。
J103 例:People can't live on nothing.人不可能什么都不吃。
J103 She lives in Paris but she speaks with a German accent.
 She can't be French--she must be German.*
J193 她住在巴黎,但她说话带德语口音。她不可能是法国人,一定是德国人。
J103 Can't you be quiet?你不能安静点吗?
J103 Can't you drive straight? 你不能直着开吗?
J103 These days, goods can be sent all over the world by air.
 现在,商品可以空运到世界各地。
J103 Many plants can be grown easily indoors. 许多植物很容易在室内种植。
J103 They can't have eaten all that food. 他们不可能将那些食物吃光。
J104 Surely he can't be working at this time of the night.
J104 晚上这个时候他肯定不可能还在工作。
...............................................................................

J104 can表示“被准许做......”,“被许可做......”
J104 You can borrow this radio until tomorrow.(='You are allowed to...')
J104 你可以将这台收音机借至明天再还。
J104 The students can live at the college during the vacation, if they wish.
J104 在假期中,如果学生们愿意的话,他们可以住在学校。
J104 Can I pay by /check<美国英语>/cheque<英国英语>/ please?我能用支票结帐吗?
J104 When can we start work?(can we ='are we allowed to')我们可以什么时候开始工作?
J104 I'm sorry,you can't smoke in the hospital.对不起,在医院不能吸烟。
J104 Visitors cannot fish on this side of the river.游客不准在河这边钓鱼。
j104 You can't go abroad without a'passport.没有护照就不能出国。
J105 I can smell something burning .我闻到什么东西烧着了。
J105 Can you hear what he's saying?你能听见他在说什么吗?
J105 I can't imagine what they're doing.我真想象不出他们在干些什么事情。
J105 I can remember the first day I went to school. 我仍记得我上学的第一天。
J105 can you open the door ,please?你能开开门吗?
J105 Can I help you?我能帮你什么忙吗?
..............................................................................
J106 certain和 sure(形容词)意义均为“无疑”。
J106 The President feels/certain/sure / that he will win the next election.
J106 But many people think he is / certain /sure /to lose .
J106 总统确信他将在下次选举中获胜。但许多人认为他肯定会失败。
J106 'All the tickets have been sold .' 'Are you / certain/sure /(of that)?'
J106 “所有的票都卖光了。”“肯定吗?”
J106 certain意为“具体的”,或“已知但未指明”。
J106 If you want to be slim, you should try to lose a certain amount
 of weight every week.
J106 如果想变得苗条些的话,你应该想方设法每周减少点体重。
J106 The club meets on certain days every month.
J106 俱乐部成员每月于某些确定的日期聚会。
J107 sure(副词)主要用在美国口语中,意为“肯定无疑”。
J107 sure用于回答中或用来强调陈述句。
J107'Can you lend me a few dollars?' 'sure'.“你能借给我几美元吗?”'当然可以'.
J107 ‘Jill sings well, doesn't she?' 'Yes, she sure does.'
J “吉尔歌唱得很好,是不是?”“当然是的”。
..............................................................................
J107 Certainly意为“无疑”,“当然”。
J107 She will certainly be on time:sh,其效果比yes更强。
J197 'Will you help me move these bags?' 'Certainly.'
J107 “ 你能帮我搬搬这些包裹吗?”“当然可以。”
J107 否定形式certainly not表示强烈的不同意和断然的拒绝。
J107 'Could I invite you and your wife to dinner?' 'Certainly not !
It's our turn to invite you!'
J107 “我能请你和夫人吃饭吗?”“不行!这回该轮到我们请你了。”
J111 'I'm going to the hospital this afternoon .Would you like to come with me?'
J111 “我今天下午想去医院,你跟我一起去吗?”
J111 'Hello,Roy .Are you coming to the party tomorrow?'
J111 (i.e 'I'm going to be there')喂,罗伊,明天舞会你来吗?
J111 (也就是说:“明天我会那在里。”)
..............................................................................
J112 请看下面两篇报道的不同:
J112 The New York Times
J112 This summer more Amerisan visitrs went to Europe for a vacation than ever before.
 纽约时报》这个夏季,去欧洲度假的美国人比以往任何时候都多。
J112 The London Times
J112 This summer more American visitors came to Europe for a holiday than ever before.
 《伦敦时报》这个夏季,来欧洲度假的美国人比以往任何时候都多。
J113 'Let's meet tomorrow.' 'Okay.Shall I came to your house,
or will you came to mine ?' 'I'll come to yours,if you prefer.
 “咱们明天再见吧。”“好的,是我来你家,还是你到我家?”
 “如果你愿意的话,那就我到你家去吧。”
................................................................................

J113 been作go的过去分词时意为“离开过并且已返回”。
J113 'Where has your son gone ?' 'He's gone to China ,
 and he's coming back next month.'
J113 “你儿子去哪里了?”“他去中国了,下月回来。”
J113 'Where has your son been ?' 'He's been to China.He came back lask week'.
 “你儿子去哪里了?”“他去过中国,上周回来的。”
J113 Unfortunately, fairy stories rarely some true.令人遗撼的是,童话故事不能成为现实。
J113 In hot weather,meat goes bad*and milk goes sour *quickly---so be careful.
 天热时,肉会变坏,牛奶会很快变酸,因此请当心。
................................................................................

J113 *注意:came+形容词通常表示好的事情,
 而go+形容词则表示令人不快的事情。
J113 Why don't you come and see us next weekend?你为什么不下周来看看我们呢?
J113 I'll go and fetch the car.我去把车开来。
J120 His visits are growing more and more frequent.
 =He visits us more and more often.他来看我们越来越勤了。
J121 例:She's wearing the same dress as her sister wore last year.
 她现在穿的衣服跟她姐姐去年穿的是一模一样。
J122 The President is more mervous than he looks.总统比他看上去还紧张。
J122 John can run faster than his brother can .(=than his brother can run)
 约翰能比他弟弟跑得更快。
J122 Jane works harder than her sister does.(=than her sister works)
 简比她妹妹工作更努力。
J123 Which is the warmer of the two countries ?Egypt or Nigeria ?
 埃及和尼日利亚这两个国家的气候哪个更暖和一些?
J123 Which is the warmest of the three countries ?Egypt,Nigeria,or Indonesia?
J123 埃及、尼日利亚和印度尼西亚这三个国家的气候哪个最暖和?
................................................................................

J123 两者进行比较时,正确的形式是比较级,但有时也可以用最高级。
 如在拳击比赛前,我们可以对两位拳击手说:
J123 May the best man win !愿最好的选手获胜!
J123 The Eiffel Tower is twice as Notre Dame.
 埃斐尔铁塔的高度是巴黎圣母院高度的两倍。或
J123 Notre Dame is half as high as the Eiffel Towre .
 巴黎圣母院只有埃斐尔铁塔一半高。
J125 The radio is on. My mother is in good health.收音机开着.我妈妈身体好。
J128 We will lose the game unless we try harder.
 (='If we do not try harder ,we will lose the game')
 如果不更加努力地打的话,我们是会输掉这场球的。
J128 So long as the baby is fed,he seems very happy.婴儿只要吃饱就会显得很高兴。
J129 congratulations(祝贺),
J129 回答是Thank you (very much).
................................................................................

J129 口头祝贺:
J129 Congratulations ,Keith! I understand you have passed your exam
 with excellent marks .Your family will be very proud of you.Well done!
 祝贺你,基斯!我知道你考试已经通过,成绩很不错.你家里人会为你自豪的.考得好!

J129 书面祝贺:
J129 Dear John and May,
J129 congratulations on your engagement.I understand you are getting
 married quite soon .When will the happy day be?
 My very best wishes for your future happiness.
 亲爱的约翰和玛利:祝贺你们已订婚。喜知你们不久就要结婚。
 不知良辰吉日定在何时?衷心地祝愿你们将来幸福美满。
J138 In spite of knowing London ,I got lost.尽管熟悉伦敦,但我还是迷路了。
J138 I can still criticise her ,even though she's a friend of mine .
 尽管她是我的朋友,但我仍可以批评她。
J139 They haven't eaten for days, (and) yet *they look healthy.
 他们几天没吃东西,可仍显得很健康。
J139 Stan was lazy ,failed his exam .His brother ,however ,was succesful,
 and later became a famous lawyer.
 斯坦很懒,考试不及格,可他弟弟却很成功,后来成为一位有名的律师。
J139 The weather was miserable: it rained almost every day .
All the same,we all managed to enjoy our /holiday<英国英语>/vacation<美国英语>
 天气糟透了,几乎天天下雨。尽管如此,我们还是想方设法使我们的假期愉快。
J139 We didn't win a single first prize at this year's flower show.
 Still,out results were very good.
 今年的花卉展览上,我们没有得1个一等奖.但尽管如此,我们的结果还是很不错的。
.............................................................................

J139 yet只限用于句首,并且前面可用and。在某种程度上,yet更象个连词,而不象副词。
J139 陈述1: 对比 陈述2:
J139 In Britain the hottest In Australia the coldest
J139 month of the year is month of the year is
J139 usually July. usually July.
J139 在英国,每年最热的月 在奥大利亚,每年最冷的月
J139 份通常是七月。 份通常是七月。
J141 Many students can write English but (they) can't speak it very well.
J141 许多学生笔头英语较好,但口头英语却不太行。
J141 Edna ordered an ice-cream,and Jill(ordered) a fruit juice.
J141 埃德娜要了一份冰淇淋,吉尔要了一杯水果汁。
J141 If you are young and (if you)want adventure,
this is the job for you.(一则广告)
J141 如果你年轻,并且又喜欢历险的话,那这个工作对你就再适合不过了。
J142 You can pay in cash or by credit card.你可用现款或信用卡结帐。
J142 The hotel is small but very confortable.旅馆不大,但很舒适。
J142 My favourite subjects are history and literature.
 我最喜欢的科目是历史和文学。
J142 Do you like your coffee with or without milk?你的咖啡要不要加牛奶?
J142 No one has seen or heard anything of them for ages.
 已经有好久没有任何人见到他们或听到有关他们的消息。
J142 I have spoken to her only once or twice.我只跟她讲过一两次话。
................................................................................

J142 在and ,or和 but后,通常不再重复限定词(如:a,the,my)。例如:
J142 my father and mother 比my father and my mother更常见。
J142 并列连词通常不能用来连接两个位于名词前的所有格代词,所以我们最好不要说:
J142 our and your friends,而应说:our friends and yours.
J144 They /could/might/ have arrived.他们可能已经到了。
...............................................................................
J144 进行体 如:
J144 They /could/might/ be coming late.他们可能晚点到。

J144 被动语态 如:
J144 They /could/might/ be delayed.他们可能被耽搁了。

J144 完成被动态 如:
J144 You /could/might/ have been killed.你当时有可能被杀了的。
J144 Well! It/could/might/ rain tomorrow,but there are no clouds in the sky today.
 唉!明天也许会有雨,但今天天上没有一片云。
J144 One day I /could/might/ become a millionaire,but the chances are very small.
 有一天我也会成为百万富翁的,但这种可能性太小了。
J144 'You might be offered the job of manager.' 'Yes ,and pigs might fly!'*
J144 “也许会让你当上经理的。”“是的,那样猪就会飞了!”
................................................................................

J144 *“pigs might fly”一语常用来表示
“任何事情都有可能成为现实,尽管可能性非常小。”
J145 注:could/might的这种意义常用于“警告”中。
J145 例:Don't cross the road here; you /could/might/ be run over.
 不要在此横穿马路,否则会被车子压死的。
J145 'Could I see you for a few minutes?' 'Yes, certainly.'<客气>
 “我能与你谈几分钟吗?”“当然可以。”
J145 Do you think / I wonder if/ I could borrow/ a pen?
/some sugar? your typewriter?/<更客气>
 你认为我/ 我不知道/ 能借 /支钢笔吗?/些糖吗?/你的打字机吗?
J145 Student: What shall I do to improve my English?
J145 Teacher: Well, you could /might try some of these grammar exercises.
 学生:我怎样才能提高我的英语水平?
 教师:嗯,你可以做这些语法练习试试。
J145 could/might用来抱怨某人的行为。(这种用法可不客气!)
................................................................................

J146 注 (i) 抱怨常与比较级连用
J146 例:You could try to take more quielly!
你完全可以尽量更小点声音讲的。
J146 (ii)对过去的行为抱怨时,使用完成体。
J146 例:You could have told me the boss was angry!你早就该告诉我老板生气了。
J146 You might have asked me before you took the money!你拿钱之前本来可以问问我的。
J146 might多用于表示可能性,could则多用于不表示许可。
J146 could可用于请求[参见REQUESTS条]中。
J146 例:Could you wait over there ,please?你能在那边等等吗?
J146 Could you possibly lend me$10?你能借给我10美元吗?
J146 could 可用来表示'was able to'(过去能够做)或'would be able to'(能够做)。
J146 例 In those days,you could buy a coat for $20 那个时候,20美元就能买件衣服。
J146 If you were here,we could play tennis together.
J146 如果你在这儿的话,我们就能一起打网球了。
................................................................................

J146 could和might的否定式意义不同:
J146 在could not+动词......中,not否定could.
J146 在might not+动词......中,not 否定动词和动词后的成分。
J146 例:You couldn't have met my grandmother:she died before you were born.
J146 (i.e 'it is not possible that you met......')
你不会见到我祖母的;你出生之前她就去世了。
J146 You might not have met my grandmother.
('It is possible that you have not met her.' 可能你没见过我祖母。
................................................................................

J147 在虚拟语气(如:IF分句)中could和 might在意义上有点不同.
J147 例:If it should rain ,the games could take place indoors.
J147 (='It would be possible to organise the games indoors'.)
J147 如果下雨,比赛可以在室内进行。
J147 If is should rain, the games might take place indoors.
J147 (='It is possible that the agmes would take place indoors'.)
J147 如果下雨,比赛可能会在室内进行。
................................................................................

J147 过去的可能性可用could/might have*来表达。
J147 例:A:‘Did you pass the exam?'
J147 B:'No, I didn't.'
J147 A:'Well,if you had worked harder, you might have passed it.
J147 A:“你考试通过了吗?”
J147 B:“没有”。
J147 A:“哎,如果努力点的话,你可能会已经通过了。
J149 (i)Do you have a pleasant job ? (不能用: ...a pleasant work:)
J149 (ii) Those meals you cooked were delicious.(不能用:Those foods...)
J149 (iii) I bought two loaves. (不能用:...two broads.)
J149 (i) 你的工作中意不中意?
................................................................................

J149 (ii) 你做的那几顿饭真好吃。
J149 (iii) 我买了两条面包。
J149 It 's made of wood.(不能用: made of trec.)
J149 There's too much traffis.(不能用: too much vehiele.)
J149 I sold all the furniture.(不能用: all the table.)
J149 它是木头做的。
J149 车子太多。
J150 我把所有的家具都卖了。
................................................................................

J150 *some和all the后偶尔接单数可数名词,但这属于特殊用法。
J150 例:That was some party!(='a very special party'.)那舞会真特别!
J150 I've eaten all the loaf. (='the whole loaf'.)我已把整条面包都吃光了。

J150 可数 不可数
J150 A dozen (=12)eggs, please. There's some egg on your chin.
J150 I've told him so many times. We've wasted so much time.
J150 The crowd threw rocks at us. a tunnel through hard rock .
J150 a strong wind; light winds. There's a lot of wind about.
J150 She gave a talk on sailing. That's foolish talk.
J150 the bright lights of the city. Light travels very fast.
................................................................................

J150 请来一打(12只)鸡蛋。 你下巴上有些鸡蛋末。
J150 我已告诉他许多次。 我们已浪费了这么多时间。
J150 人群向我们丢石块。 一条穿过坚硬岩石的隧道。
J150 一陈强风;微风。 到处都有传闻。
J150 她举行了一次关于航行的讲座。 那真是蠢话。
J150 城里明亮的灯火。 光速很快。
................................................................................

J151 还有一种不太常见的可数名词用法:
不可数名词可用来表示该名词所指的种类
(a king or type of+该名词),从而变成可数名词。
J151 例:Gold and silver are valuable metals.('kinds of metal')金和银是贵重金属。
J151 This store sells health foods and baby food(s).这家商店出售保健食品和婴儿食品。
J151 有时我们将不可数名词变成可数名词。
例如:象tea(茶)和coffee(咖啡)
................................................................................

等液体名词通常是不可数名词,但我们将它们用作可数名词来表示:
J151 例:'A tea and two coffees please.'请来一杯茶,两杯咖啡。
J156 口头表达:
举例说明如何口头表达日期:
J156 ‘What's the date today?’‘It's the twenty--fifth of May.’
J156 “今天几号?”“今天是5月25号。”
J156 ‘When were you born ?’‘On the ninth of July,1956*.’
J156 “你什么时候出生的?”“1956年7月9日。”
J156 ‘In what year was Beethoven born?’‘In 1770*.’
J156 “贝多芬哪年出生的?”“1770年。”
................................................................................

J157 书面表达
J157 在书写日期时,可从下面两个句型中选用其一。不要使用the和of:
J157 (英国英语):(Monday,)1st June, 1927 Or:1 June, 1927
J157 (美国英语):(Thursday) March 5th ,1564 Or:March 5 ,1564
J157 从上例中可以看出,序数词后--th也可省略不用。
................................................................................

J158 许多词与等级有关:
J158 (a)最高程度:completely full,completely dark.
J158 (b)高程度:very full ,very dark.
J158 (c)中间/低程度:/rather full,/a bit full,/rather dark/a bit dark.
J158 有些词,只有b项和c项,不能有a项。
J158 例:His hair is/(a)completely thin ,completely long
J158 (b)very thin ,very long
J158 (c)/rather/a bit/ thin, /rather/a bit / long
J158 他的头发/(a)稀,长
J158 (b)很稀,很长
J158 (c)有点稀,有点长
................................................................................

J159 而有些词,只能有a项而不能有b,c项
J159 例:My job is completely finished.我的工作已全部完成。
J159 Your job is completely impossible.你的工作根本就做不完。
J159 Your views and mine are completely opposed.你和我的看法完完全全不同。
................................................................................

J159 不能说:
J159 very/finished
J159 rather/impossible
J159 a bit/opposed
................................................................................

J159 注:许多人不喜欢象very unique 和rather perfect这类用法,
因为unique和 perfect本身不能分成不同的等级。
J159 (a):
I agree with you completely.我完全同意你的看法。
G41 Will you be going to Australia for Christmas or will you stay in China?




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