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         动词--- 能表示动作/状态的词为动词.有实义动词<含及物/不及物>/系动词/情态动词/助动词。

名称
                          典型例句
及物动词/带宾语 I have a computer.
不及物动词/不带宾语 I go to school.
不及物动词转及物动词表 带宾语 She looked at herself in the glass.
普通实意动词/永远在主语后 I want to go home.<考点记:2个普通实意动词中间必须有to>
情态动词/须有主语后跟V I must go home.
半助动词be/have=谓语=助动词 Are you a student? Have you got a computer?
全助动词do=助动词 What(宾)do(助)you(主)do(谓)?<考点:主语后do=谓语动词do≠助动词do,谓语永远不能写在主语前面,更不能=当作助动词do去使用,所以出现了2个do的现象.>如:How do you do?

英语时态表--现在时:公式=V(s)

主语
判断句/描写句
存在句
占有句
动态句(动词不固定)
1
he
is
has
does/plays...
2
she
is
has
does/plays...
3
it
is
has
does/plays...
4
其它单数
is
is
has
does/plays...
5
I
am
have
do/play...
6
you
are
have
do/play...
7
we
are
have
do/play...
8
you
are
have
do/play...
9
they
are
have
do/play...
10
其它复数
are
are
have
do/play...

=============================================================
 *V+s=共4种①plays②study->studies③-s,-x,-ch,-sh,-o+es=goes④不规则2个=is/has

 *口诀:3
个他,是一家,回家要把钥匙拿.要问钥匙是什么,钥匙=S呀*<V+s在赵氏52英语教材P85上>


英语时态表--过去时:公式=Ved

 
主语
判断句/描写句
存在句
占有句
动态句(动词不固定)
1
he
was
had
did/played
2
she
was
had
did/played
3
it
was
had
did/played
4
其它单数
was
was
had
did/played
5
I
was
had
did/played
6
you
were
had
did/played
7
we
were
had
did/played
8
you
were
had
did/played
9
they
were
had
did/played
10
其它复数
were
were
had
did/played

*V+ed=共5种①played②study->studied ③-e+d=lived ④辅+元+辅'结尾'时双写,stopped ⑤不规则go=went

*<V+ed在赵氏52英语教材P86上>

英语时态表--将来时:公式=will+V

主语
判断句/描写句
存在句
占有句
动态句(动词不固定)
1
he
will be
will have
will do/play
2
she
will be
will have
will do/play
3
it
will be
will have
will do/play
4
其它单数
will be
will be
will have
will do/play
5
I
will be
will have
will do/play
6
you
will be
will have
will do/play
7
we
will be
will have
will do/play
8
you
will be
will have
will do/play
9
they
will be
will have
will do/play
10
其它复数
will be
will be
will have
will do/play

*will/shall/can/may/must...+V[动词原形]=将来时*<V=动词原形,will=情态动词.

英语时态表--完成时:公式=have+Ved

主语
判断句/描写句
存在句
占有句
动态句(动词不固定)
1
he
has been
has had
has done/played
2
she
has been
has had
has done/played
3
it
has been
has had
has done/played
4
其它单数
has been
has been
has had
has done/played
5
I
have been
have had
have done/played
6
you
have been
have had
have done/played
7
we
have been
have had
have done/played
8
you
have been
have had
have done/played
9
they
have been
have had
have done/played
10
其它复数
have been
have been
have had
have done/played

*have/has+Ved(动词过去分词/多数为过去式)=完成时*<V+ed--在赵氏52英语教材P87上>

英语时态表--进行时:公式=be+Ving

主语
判断句
描写句
存在句
占有句
动态句(v不固定)
1
he
is+being(极少)
is+Ving/V=get...
is+having(极少)
is+doing/playing
2
she
is+being(极少)
is+Ving
is+having(极少)
is+doing/playing
3
it
is+being(极少)
is+Ving
is+having(极少)
is+doing/playing
4
其它/单
is+being(极少)
is+Ving
is+Ving/少
is+having(极少)
is+doing/playing
5
I
am+being(极少)
are+Ving
are+having(极少)
are+doing/playing
6
you
are+being(极少)
are+Ving
are+having(极少)
are+doing/playing
7
we
are+being(极少)
are+Ving
are+having(极少)
are+doing/playing
8
you
are+being(极少)
are+Ving
are+having(极少)
are+doing/playing
9
they
are+being(极少)
are+Ving
are+having(极少)
are+doing/playing
10
其它/复
are+being(极少)
are+Ving
are+Ving/少
are+having(极少)
are+doing/playing
 *be+Ving=进行时(be=正 --ing=)*V+ing 在赵氏52英语教材P85上
 *V+ing=共4种 ①playing ②have去e+having ③辅+元+辅'结尾'时双写,stopping ④lie结尾y,lying

要点谓语动词包括:系动词、实义动词、助动词和情态动词。

*1个谓语:句子的现在时/过去时=1个动词。动词与主语必须在人称上,或数量上保持一致性:
<>Mary plays the piano very well.玛丽钢琴弹得非常好*此处是1个谓语=play
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*2个以上谓语:句子除现在时/过去时外,都是2个动词或以上。助动词+实义动词=合成
谓语,真正的谓语=实义动词,其形式一旦确定下来,就禁止再改变了。*其形式有:will+be=将来时;be+doing=进行时;have+done=完成时;be+done=被动;have+been+doing=完成进行时 ...目录

<>+<>When he finishes,I will be the next speaker.他讲后就该是我发言了
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*[规则1]谓语=动词;动词=谓语
助动词+实义动词=合成谓语 *合成后变化由助动词承担。

[规则2]能+n't的词都属于助动词.

[规则3]只要有助动词时:3单现+s/过去时+ed等变化部分必须转移给助动词承担。
       无论是*1个谓语,还是*2个以上谓语此点必须执行.
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<> He doesn't do it.他不做它。He didn't do it.他没有做它

*此处后者谓语do的时态转移给了前者助动词does/did承担着。
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5. 动词26823

1)表示动作中状态的词叫做动词。
2)根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,分别是:实义动词(Notional Verb)、系动词(Link Verb)、助动词(Auxiliary Verb)、情态动词(Modal Verb)。
说明:有些情况下,有些动词是兼类词,例如:
We are having a meeting.我们正在开会。 (having是实义动词。)
He has gone to New York. 他已去纽约。
(has是助动词。)
3)动词根据其后是否带有宾语,可分为两类,分别是:及物动词(Transitive Verb)、不及物动词(Intransitive Verb),缩写形式分别为vt. 和vi.。
说明:同一动词有时可用作及物动词,有时可用作不及物动词。例如:
She can dance and sing.
她能唱歌又能跳舞。(sing在此用作不及物动词。)
She can sing many English songs.
她能唱好多首英文歌曲。(sing用作及物动词。)
4)根据是否受主语的人称和数的限制,可分两类,分别是:限定动词(Finite Verb)、非限定动词(Non-finite Verb)例如:
She sings very well.
她唱得很好。(sing受主语she的限制,故用第三人称单数形式sings。)
She wants to learn English well.
她想学好英语。(to learn不受主语she的限制,没有词形变化,是非限定动词。
说明:英语中共有三种非限定动词,分别是:动词不定式(Infinitive)、动名词(Gerund)、分词(Participle)。
5) 根据动词的组成形式,可分为三类,分别是:单字词(One-Word Verb)、短语动词(Phrasal Verb)、动词短语(Verbal Phrase)例如:
The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases.
英语里有许多短语动词和动词短语。(contains是单字动词。)
Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries.
学生们学会查字典。(look up是短语动词。)
The young ought to take care of the old.
年轻人应照料老人。(take care of是动词短语。)
6)动词有五种形态,分别是:原形(Original Form)、第三人称单数形式(Singular From in Third Personal)、过去式(Past Form)、过去分词(Past Participle)、现在分词(Present Participle)。
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5.1 系动词
   系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。

说明:
有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语,例如:
   He fell ill yesterday. 
   他昨天病了。(fell是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语情况。)
   He fell off the ladder. 
   他从梯子上摔下来。fell是实义动词,单独作谓语。

1)状态系动词
用来表示主语状态,只有be一词,例如:
He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)

2)持续系动词
用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如:
He always kept silent at meeting.  他开会时总保持沉默。
This matter rests a mystery.  此事仍是一个谜。

3)表像系动词
用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如:
He looks tired.  他看起来很累。
He seems (to be) very sad.  他看起来很伤心。

4)感官系动词
感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如:
  This kind of cloth feels very soft. 
  这种布手感很软。
  This flower smells very sweet. 
  这朵花闻起来很香。

5)变化系动词
  这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.
例如:
   He became mad after that.  自那之后,他疯了。
   She grew rich within a short time.  她没多长时间就富了。

6)终止系动词
表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, trun out, 表达"证实","变成"之意,例如:
   The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。
   The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。
   His plan turned out a success.  他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)

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5.2 什么是助动词
1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb)。被协助的动词称作主要动词(Main Verb)。
助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用,例如:
   He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。
(doesn't是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义)

2) 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:
  a. 表示时态,例如:
    He is singing. 他在唱歌。
    He has got married. 他已结婚。
  b. 表示语态,例如:
    He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。
  c. 构成疑问句,例如:
    Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?
    Did you study English before you came here?  你来这儿之前学过英语吗?
  d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句,例如:
    I don't like him.  我不喜欢他。
  e. 加强语气,例如:
    Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。
    He did know that.  他的确知道那件事。
3) 最常用的助动词有:be,have,do,shall,will,should, would.
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5.3 助动词be的用法
1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态,例如:
They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。
English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。

2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态,例如:
The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。
English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。

3) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容:
  a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排,例如:
   He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。
   We are to teach the freshpersons. 我们要教新生。
   说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。
  b. 表示命令,例如:
   You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。
   He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。
  c. 征求意见,例如:
   How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他?
   Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢?
  d. 表示相约、商定,例如:
   We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。
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5.4 助动词have的用法
1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态,例如:
   He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。
   By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 
   上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。

2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时,例如:
  I have been studying English for ten years.
  我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。

3)have+been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态,例如:
  English has been taught in China for many years.
  中国教英语已经多年.
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5.5 助动词do 的用法
1) 构成一般疑问句,例如:
  Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗?
  Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗?

2) do + not 构成否定句,例如:
  I do not want to be criticized.  我不想挨批评。
  He doesn't like to study.  他不想学习。
  In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。

3) 构成否定祈使句,例如:
  Don't go there. 不要去那里。
  Don't be so absent-minded.  不要这么心不在焉。
说明: 构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。

4) 放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气,例如:
  Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。
  I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。
  I do miss you. 我确实想你。

5) 用于倒装句,例如:
  Never did I hear of such a thing.  我从未听说过这样的事情。
  Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English.
只有在开始大学生活时我们才认识到英语的重要性。
说明: 引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。

6) 用作代动词,例如:
  ---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗?
  ---- Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替like Beijing.)
  He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he?
  他知道如何开车,对吧?
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5.6 助动词shall和will的用法
  shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时,例如:
    I shall study harder at English.  我将更加努力地学习英语。
    He will go to Shanghai.  他要去上海。

说明:
  在过去的语法中,语法学家说shall用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:

  He shall come. 他必须来。(shall有命令的意味。)
  He will come. 他要来。(will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)
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5.7 助动词should,would的用法
1)should无词义,只是shall的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称,例如:
  I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week.
  我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。

比较:
  "What shall I do next week?" I asked.
  "我下周干什么?"我问道。(可以说,shall变成间接引语时,变成了should。)

2) would也无词义,是 will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称,例如:
   He said he would come.  他说他要来。
比较:
   "I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。"
    变成间接引语,就成了:
    He said he would come. 
   原来的will变成would,go变成了come.。
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5.8 短语动词
动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词(Phrasal Verb)。例如:
Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turn off是短语动词)
短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:
1)动词+副词,如:black out;
2)动词+介词,如:look into;
3)动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词(Particle)。
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5.9 非谓语动词
   在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式,动名词,和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。

1)不定式
时态\语态    主动      被动         

  一般式    to do      to be done
  完成式    to have done  to have been done

2)动名词
时态\语态    主动      被动         
  一般式    doing     being done
  完成式    having done  having been done

3)分词
时态\语态    主动      被动         
  一般式    doing     being done
 完成式    having done  having been done    

   否定形式: not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在分词
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18.动词[07-09-02]

谓语动词包括:系动词、实义动词、助动词和情态动词。

18.1系动词

必须和表语一起连用作谓语构成系表结构,语义才完整。常见的有:

be, seem(似乎), turn(变为),become(成为),appear(显得),get(变得), grow(成长),keep(保持), look(看起来),feel(摸起来),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来), sound(听起来)等。例句:

It’s getting colder.天渐渐变冷了。

18.2 实义动词

能单独作谓语、有实义,可分为:①及物动词,后需接宾语。②不及物动词,后不需接宾语。但有的动词如read, say, think等既可作及物又可作不用物动词。例如:

He left(Shanghai).他离开(上海)了。

18.3动词的基本形式

动词有五种基本形式:动词原形、现在时第三人称单数形式、过去式、过去分词和现在分词。

①五种基本形式简表(以look为例)

动词原形look

第三人称单数式looks

过去式looked

过去分词looked

现在分词looking

②现在时第三人称单数形式

变化情况

读音

词例

在词尾直接加-s

[s]/[z]

like--likes

词尾以-s、-x、-ch、-sh结尾的词加-es

[iz]

fix—fixes

wash--washes

词尾以辅音字母加y结尾,把y改为i,再加-es

[iz]

study—studies

cry--cries

③过去式与过去分词

A.规则变化

变化情况

读音

词例

在词尾前加-ed

在清辅音后读[t],在浊辅音后读[d],在t、e后读[id]

look—looked

play—played

visit—visited

 

以e结尾的词加-d

同上

hate—hated

save—saved

以辅音字母加y结尾的词,改y成i,再加-ed

同上

try—tried

study—studied

 

以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节词,双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed

同上

stop—stopped

nod--nodded

B.不规则变化

有些动词不以加-ed的方式构成过去式和过去分词,这类动词叫做不规则动词。

第一类:原形、过去式、过去分词相同

词义原形过去式过去分词

爆裂burstburstburst

掷、计castcastcast

值costcostcost

切、割cutcutcut

打hithithit

伤害hurthurthurt

让、租letletlet

放置putputput

安置setsetset

关shutshutshut

劈裂splitsplitsplit

散布spreadspreadspread

刺、戳thrustthrustthrust

打赌betbetbet

广播broadcastbroadcastbroadcast

broadcastedbroadcasted

除去ridridriddedridridded

使湿wetwet wettedwet wetted

嫁、娶wedwet weddedwed wedded

忧、烦upset upset upset

第二类:过去式和过去分词同形

词义原形过去式过去分词

弯bendbentbent

流血bleedbledbled

带来bringbroughtbrought

买buyboughtbought

抓住catchcaughtcaught

处理dealdealtdealt

挖digdugdug

饲养feedfedfed

感觉feelfeltfelt

战斗fightfoughtfought

发现findfoundfound

逃离fleefledfled

绞死hanghangedhanged

悬挂hanghunghung

有havehadhad

紧握holdheldheld

保持keepkeptkept

下(蛋)laylaidlaid

引导leadledled

离、留leaveleftleft

借出lendlentlent

丢、败loselostlost

制make mademade

意味meanmeantmeant

遇见meetmetmet

付给paypaidpaid

读readread[red]read

说saysaidsaid

卖sellsoldsold

派sendsentsent

坐sitsatsat

睡sleepsleptslept

度、花spendspentspent

站standstoodstood

扫sweepsweptswept

教teachtaughttaught

告状telltoldtold

想thinkthoughtthought

懂understandunderstoodunderstood

赢winwonwon

燃烧burnburntburnt

做梦dreamdreameddreamed

忘记forgetforgotforgotten

得到getgotgot

学习learnlearnedlearned

闪耀shineshoneshone

shined(擦亮)shined

拼写spellspeltspelt

spelledspelled

打strikestruckstruck

第三类:原形、过去式、过去分词都不同形

词义原形过去式过去分词

开始beginbeganbegun

喝drinkdrankdrunk

铃响ringrangrung

唱singsangsung

画drawdrewdrawn

飞flyflewflown

扔throwthrewthrown

打beatbeatbeaten

选择choosechosechosen

驾、驱drivedrovedriven

吃eatateeaten

落fallfellfallen

躲hidehidhidden

hidhid

骑rideroderidden

上升riseroserisen

讲speakspokespoken

偷stealstolestolen

拿、取taketooktaken

醒wakewokewoken

写writewrotewritten

扯teartoretorn

穿wearworewore

是be(am, is, are)was, werebeen

做dodiddone

去gowentgone

躺lielaylain

锯sawsawedsawn

sawed

显示showshowedshowed

第四类:有少数词原形与过去分词同形

变为becomebecamebecome

来comecamecome

跑run ran run

④现在分词

变化情况

词例

在词尾直接加-ing,读[I?]以e结尾的词,去e,再加-ing

go—going,

come—coming,

leave—leaving

以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节,双写这个辅音字母,再加-ing

stop—stopping,

get—getting,

begin—beginning

以ie结尾的词,改ie成y,再加-ing

die—dying,

lie—lying,

tie--tying

18.4助动词

⑴助动词的各种形式

现在式

过去式

完成式

进行式

be

do

have

will

am, is, are

do, does

have, has

will(shall)

was, were

did

had

would

(should)

been

done

had

would have

should(have)

 

being

---

---

---

---

⑵助动词与实义动词构成的各种时态(以work为例)

 

一般式

进行式

完成式

完成进行式

现在时

work

am, is working

are working

has worked

have worked

hasbeen

have working

过去时

worked

was working

were working

had worked

had been working

将来时

will work

(shall)

will be working

shall be working

will have worked

will/shall have been working

18.5情态动词

情态动词也是一种助动词,表示说话人的语气或情态,也叫情态助动词。情态动词不能单独作谓语,需和其他动词(原形)构成谓语。常用的情态动词有:can(could), may(might), must, shall(should), will(would), need, dare, ought to和have to。

情态动词的主要用法:

⑴can/could

①表示能力(=be able to)。例如:

I can speak English.我会说英语。

②表示允许(常用于口语)。例如:

You can go now. 你现在可以走了。

③表示可能性,多用于否定或疑问句中。

例如:He can’t be at home. 他不可能在家。

Can the news be true?

这个消息会是真的吗?

⑵may/might

①表示允许或请求。例如:

You may go now. 你现在可以走了。

May I borrow your pen?

我可以借用你的钢笔吗?

②表示可能性。例如:

He may come today.他今天可能来。

She may not go to see the film tonight.

今晚她可能不去看电影。

③表示祝愿。例如:

May you be happy!祝你快乐!

⑶must/have to

①表示必须。例如:

I must leave at eight. 我必须8点离开。

Must I return the book before the end of this month?

我必须在月底前归还这本书吗?

Yes, you must.是的,你必须还。

No, you needn’t.不,你不必还。

②表示推测(用于肯定句中)。例如:

He must be sick. 他一定是病了。

I must have seen you somewhere.

我准是在什么地方见过你。

注意:must表示说话人的主观意图,have to则表示客观需要。例如:

You must do your exercises in class.

你们必须在课堂上做练习。(主观意愿)

You have to do your exercises in class.

你们不得不在课堂上做练习。(老师的要求或规定)

⑷shall/should

①表示命令、警告等意。用于第二、三人称。例如:You shall get out of the room at once.

你要立刻离开这间房。

②表示征询,用于第一、三人称的疑问句中。例如:Shall he come tonight?

要他今晚来吗?

Shall we go for a walk? 我们去散步好吗?

③should表示应该。例如:

You shouldn’t be so careless.

你不该如此粗心大意。

⑸will/would

①表意愿,用于名称、人称。例如:

I will do my best to help you.

我愿尽力帮助你。

②表示征询,用于第二人称疑问句中。用would比will语气更委婉。例如:

Would/Will you give me a hand?

帮个忙,好吗?

⑹need

表示需要、必须,用于否定句、疑问句。

例如:

Need you do it now? 你现在必须做吗?

Yes, I must.是的,我必须做。

No, I needn’t.不,我不需要。

注意: need也可作实义动词,其变化与一般动词相同,后接动词不定式。例如:

I need to go now.我现在需要走了。

⑺dare

表示敢于,作情态动词用于否定句和疑问句。例如:How dare you say that?

你怎么敢说这样的话?

I daren’t go there alone.

我不敢一个人去那里。

Dare也可作实义动词,其变化与一般动词相同。例如:

He dares to go there.他敢去那里。

They dared to go there. 他们敢去那里。

19.时态

时态是谓语动词所表示的动作或情况发生时的各种形式,常用有12种,初中阶段主要学习掌握8种时态。

时态

例句

一般现在时

We learn English every day.

一般过去时

We learn English many years ago.

一般将来时

We’ll learn English nextyear.

现在进行时

We’re learning English now.

过去进行时

We were learning English at ten yesterday.

现在完成时

We’ve learnt English since 2000.

过去完成时

We had learnt English by then.

过去将来时

We knew we would learn English.

 

19.1一般现在时(除第三人称单数加-s,其他用原形)

表示经常性、习惯性的动作,表示现在的状态、特征和真理,句中常用often, usually, every day, always, sometimes.等时间状语。例句:

We go to bed at ten every night.

我们每天晚上10点睡觉。

They often listen to the radio.

他们经常收听广播。

Guilin is a beautiful city in China.

桂林是中国的一个美丽的城市。

The sun rises in the east.太阳从东方升起。

注意:用于时间、条件状语从句中表示将要发生的动作。例如:

I’ll go swimming if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.

如果明天不下雨,我就去游泳。

19.2 一般过去时(动词用过去式)

表示过去发生、存在或反复发生的动作。一般过去时句中常用的时间状语有:yesterday, last week, this morning, in 1960, during, those years等。例句:

I bought a new car last week.

上周我买了一辆新车。

He worked in that school a year ago.

他一年前在那所学校工作。

19.3一般将来时(will+动词原形)

表示将来的动作或状态。由“will/shall+动词原形”构成,也可用“be going to+动词原形”结构来表示决定或安排要做的事或很可能发生的事或自然现象。例如:

He will go to college next year.

他明年上大学。

I won’t be free tonight.我今晚没有空。

They are going to see a film tomorrow.

他们打算明天去看电影。

一般将来时常用的时间状语有:this evening, tonight, tomorrow, next week, from now on等。

19.4现在进行时(am/is/are+现在分词)

表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作。

例如:

He is waiting for me at the gate.

他正在大门口等我。

We are having a meeting now.

我们现在正在开会。

I’m feeling better.我感觉好点了。

19.5过去进行时(was/were+现在分词)

表示过去某一时刻、某一阶段正在进行的动作。常与then, at that time等表示过去的时间状语连用。例如:

He was watching TV at eight yesterday evening.

昨晚8点他正在看电视。

We were having lessons the whole morning yesterday.

昨天我们整个上午都在上课。

19.6现在完成时(have/has+过去分词)

①表示动作在说话之前已完成。常与already, yet, just等连用。

②表示动作已开始,可能还要持续下去,常与today, now, so far, recently, lately, in the past few days等或与 for, since 等状语连用,注意for, since短语作状语不能与非持续性动词连用。例如:

I’ve lived here for ten years.

我在这里住了十年。

They haven’t finished the work yet.

他们尚未完成这项工作。

He has been to Shanghai.他去过上海。(已返回)

He has gone to Shanghai. 他到上海去了。(在去的路上,或已到上海)

19.7过去完成时(had+过去分词)

表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前即“过去的过去”完成的动作状态,句中常用by, before等时间状语。例如:

He said that he had never been to the U.S.A.

When I arrived, the film had begun.

我到时,电影已经开始了。

We had finished this book by the end of last term.到上学期末我们已学完这本书。

19.8过去将来时(would+动词原形)

表示过去某一时间将要发生的动作或存在的状态,常用在宾语从句中。例如:

I didn’t know if he would come.

我不知道他是否会来。

She said she would go to Guilin to learn English.

她说她将去桂林学英语。

 

2008高考词组完全归纳版 1. settle an argument about… 处理一个关于……的争议 2.a best seller 畅销书 3. be sent into 被收入 4. set down = write down=put down 记下,写下 5.keep track of 保持联系 6. be put into被放入;被翻译成 7. live to be 122 years 活到122岁 8. reach a length of 长达…… 9. with an area of 面积有….. 10.stand out 突出,显著 11.next to 次于,在….之后 12. struggle against disease 同疾病做斗争 13.be diagnosed with cancer被诊断为癌症 14.achieve his goal 达到目标 15.in a row 连续;一连串 16. in the first place 首先

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